Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity
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{"title"=>"Multiple candidate effectors from the oomycete pathogen hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suppress host plant immunity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Georgina", "last_name"=>"Fabro", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505823809"}, {"first_name"=>"Jens", "last_name"=>"Steinbrenner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602821303"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary", "last_name"=>"Coates", "scopus_author_id"=>"36450042500"}, {"first_name"=>"Naveed", "last_name"=>"Ishaque", "scopus_author_id"=>"37026128900"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Baxter", "scopus_author_id"=>"26648180700"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Studholme", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603689075"}, {"first_name"=>"Evelyn", "last_name"=>"Körner", "scopus_author_id"=>"54401118200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebecca L.", "last_name"=>"Allen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199388667"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophie J.M.", "last_name"=>"Piquerez", "scopus_author_id"=>"54401431000"}, {"first_name"=>"Alejandra", "last_name"=>"Rougon-Cardoso", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505646804"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Greenshields", "scopus_author_id"=>"8589784300"}, {"first_name"=>"Rita", "last_name"=>"Lei", "scopus_author_id"=>"23501608100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge L.", "last_name"=>"Badel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602313106"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Cecile", "last_name"=>"Caillaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"36899654300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kee Hoon", "last_name"=>"Sohn", "scopus_author_id"=>"8295990500"}, {"first_name"=>"Guido", "last_name"=>"van den Ackerveken", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603841256"}, {"first_name"=>"Jane E.", "last_name"=>"Parker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404595284"}, {"first_name"=>"Jim", "last_name"=>"Beynon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102501766"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan D.G.", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"7408058559"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362967225", "sgr"=>"81755163005", "pmid"=>"22072967", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-81755163005", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348", "issn"=>"15537366"}, "id"=>"d367ce00-eade-3025-8ecd-0cf041436c24", "abstract"=>"Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs) were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX) and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (~70%) of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (DeltaCEL) showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether candidate effectors from eukaryotic pathogens can suppress/trigger plant defense mechanisms and to rank their effectiveness prior to subsequent mechanistic investigation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/multiple-candidate-effectors-oomycete-pathogen-hyaloperonospora-arabidopsidis-suppress-host-plant-im", "reader_count"=>173, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>50, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>50, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>50, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>17, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>145, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>145}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>17}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/716982"], "description"=>"<p><i>Hpa</i> effector candidates (HaRxLs) were delivered on 12 <i>Arabidopsis</i> accessions through the bacterial TTSS of the <i>Pst</i>-LUX strain. Levels of bacterial growth were measured quantifying bioluminescence (photon counts) emitted by the bacteria present on whole plants. The ratio of the average photon counts per second (CPS) per gram of fresh weight (FW) emitted by the bacteria delivering a given HaRxL versus the bacteria delivering control proteins was determined per accession. Experiments were repeated at least three times and statistical tests applied. <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a> and conclusions are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348#ppat.1002348.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348#ppat-1002348-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "plant biology"], "article_id"=>387322, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Functional_screening_method_/387322", "title"=>"Functional screening method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:02:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717210"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Pre-treatment of Col-0 leaves with flg22 or Chitin reduces <i>Hpa</i> isolate Noco2 hyphal colonization. Leaves of four-week-old Col-0 plants were pre-infiltrated with 100 nM flg22, inactive flg22 (from <i>A. tumefasciens</i>) or Chitin (200 µg/ml) 24 h before inoculation of <i>Hpa</i> Noco 2 (5×10<sup>4</sup> sp/ml). Pictures show trypan blue stained leaves at 5 days post-<i>Hpa</i> spraying (dps). This experiment was repeated three times with similar results and also for Emoy2 on Oy-0 plants. Panels i, ii and iii: the whole area shown was pre infiltrated. Panels iv, v and vi: only the right side of the picture was infiltrated. Dotted vertical line indicates approximated infiltration boundaries. Bar is 500 µm. (B) Pre-Induced PTI responses reduce <i>Hpa</i> asexual reproduction. Leaves of three-week old Col-0 plants were infiltrated with the indicated solutions 24 h before infection with Noco2 (5×10<sup>4</sup> sp/ml). Conidiophores per leaf were counted on trypan blue stained leaves excised at 5 dps. Bars represent the average ±2× SE of 40 leaves. This experiment was repeated three times with similar results. (b) p value <0.01, T-test. (C) <i>Hpa</i> infected tissues show reduced ROS response to flg22. Leaf discs from uninfected and infected Col-0 plants were treated with 100 nM flg22, and the level of ROS generated measured with a Luminometer. Values indicated are average of Relative Luminescence Units (RLUs) ± SE of 24 leaf discs. (D) HaRxLs delivered by <i>Pst-</i>ΔCEL in Col-0 plants suppress callose deposition. Effector's impact on the level of <i>Pst-</i>ΔCEL-triggered callose deposition is presented in the Y-axis. The average reduction (in percentage) of callose deposits observed when a given candidate effector was delivered, compared to the number of callose deposits observed when control proteins were delivered by <i>Pst-</i>ΔCEL, is represented by the shapes in the body of the graph. HaRxLs were also categorized according to their phenotype on <i>Pst-</i>LUX bioluminescence in Col-0 (X-axis). The arrow indicates the threshold set up to consider callose deposition as significantly suppressed. The numbers in the body of the graph correspond to the percentage of HaRxLs able to suppress callose deposition among each bioluminescence category. (*) Indicates p<0.05 of Z-test versus random distribution expected for the number (n) of HaRxLs on each group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pti", "virulence"], "article_id"=>387546, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Suppression_of_PTI_as_a_virulence_tool_for_Hpa_/387546", "title"=>"Suppression of PTI as a virulence tool for <i>Hpa</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:05:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363638", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363656", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363667", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363682", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363692", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363698", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363710", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363721", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363731", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363743", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363753", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363760"], "description"=>"<div><p>Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. <em>Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis</em> (<em>Hpa</em>) causes downy mildew on the model plant <em>Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis)</em>. We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of <em>Hpa</em> isolate <em>Emoy2</em> (HaRxLs) were able to manipulate host defenses in different <em>Arabidopsis</em> accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS) of <em>Pseudomonas syringae</em> pv <em>tomato</em> DC3000-LUX (<em>Pst-LUX</em>) and assessing changes in <em>Pst-LUX</em> growth <em>in planta</em> on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (∼70%) of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to <em>Pst-LUX</em> growth on more than one accession indicating that <em>Hpa</em> virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a <em>Pst</em> mutant (ΔCEL) showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced <em>Pst-LUX</em> growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased <em>Pst-LUX</em> growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced <em>Pst</em> growth on turnip, a non-host for <em>Hpa</em>, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against <em>Hpa</em> could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in <em>Arabidopsis</em> a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to <em>Hpa</em> and attenuation of <em>Arabidopsis</em> PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in <em>Hpa</em> virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether candidate effectors from eukaryotic pathogens can suppress/trigger plant defense mechanisms and to rank their effectiveness prior to subsequent mechanistic investigation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["effectors", "oomycete", "pathogen", "suppress", "immunity"], "article_id"=>131861, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Multiple_Candidate_Effectors_from_the_Oomycete_Pathogen_Hyaloperonospora_arabidopsidis_Suppress_Host_Plant_Immunity/131861", "title"=>"Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen <em>Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis</em> Suppress Host Plant Immunity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 00:31:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717093"], "description"=>"<p>The graph illustrates the outcome of the interaction between 12 <i>Arabidopsis</i> accessions (X axis) and <i>Pst</i>-LUX clones delivering 64 different <i>Hpa</i> effector candidates (HaRxLs, Y axis). Bars indicate the number of host accessions where the delivery of a given <i>Hpa</i> RxLR-like candidate effector by <i>Pst</i>-LUX conferred either enhanced (green bars), decreased (magenta bars) or no change (black bars) in bacterial growth, measured as bioluminescence, compared to the controls. The arrow indicates the threshold set up to consider that a given HaRxL truly enhances <i>Pst</i>-LUX bioluminescence. The asterisks indicate HaRxLs that suppress callose deposition in Col-0 when delivered via <i>Pst-</i>ΔCEL. High suppression levels are marked with (+). For details see <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348#ppat.1002348.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>, columns R,S and T. NC 1,2,3,4: negative internal controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["harxls"], "article_id"=>387430, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hpa_HaRxLs_can_promote_or_decrease_Pst_LUX_growth_in_different_Arabidopsis_accessions_/387430", "title"=>"<i>Hpa</i> HaRxLs can promote or decrease <i>Pst</i>-LUX growth in different <i>Arabidopsis</i> accessions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:03:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717350"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Four leaves of three five-week-old plants of two independent transgenic lines per HaRxL were infiltrated with <i>Pst-</i>ΔavrPto/ΔavrPtoB at OD<sub>600</sub> = 0.0005. Bacterial growth was determined at 3 dpi by traditional growth curve assays. Bacterial populations immediately after inoculation (3 h; 0 dpi) were averaged among plants and are represented by the solid black horizontal line, with 2× SE represented by the dashed horizontal lines. (a) T-test p value<0.05, (b) T-test p value<0.01.This experiment was repeated two times with similar results. (B) Two-week-old seedlings were spray inoculated with a suspension of 1×10<sup>4</sup> conidiospores per ml of <i>Hpa</i> isolate Noco2. At 6 dps, whole seedlings were cut and stained with Trypan blue. The number of conidiophores per leaf was counted in 4 leaves per seedling. Ten seedlings were analyzed per transgenic line per HaRxL. The horizontal black and dashed lines represent the average ±2× SE of the number of conidiophores per leaf found in the hyper-susceptible mutant Col-0 <i>eds1-2</i>. (a) T-test p value<0.01, (b) T-test p value<0.05. This experiment was repeated three times with similar results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["col-0", "plants", "expressing", "constitutively", "harxls", "enhanced"], "article_id"=>387677, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Arabidopsis_Col_0_plants_expressing_constitutively_HaRxLs_support_enhanced_growth_of_P_syringae_avrPto_avrPtoB_and_Hpa_isolate_Noco2_/387677", "title"=>"<i>Arabidopsis</i> Col-0 plants expressing constitutively HaRxLs support enhanced growth of <i>P. syringae</i> ΔavrPto/ΔavrPtoB and <i>Hpa</i> isolate Noco2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:07:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717500"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Leaf discs from four-week-old transgenic plants expressing the indicated HaRxL were sampled and floated in water 14 to 16 h prior to flg22 treatment. Photon emission was measured every 100 milliseconds for 40 minutes. Lines and error bars represent the mean of maximum values of photon counts ±2× SE of 24 independent leaf discs. This experiment was repeated four times with similar results. (B) Leaves of four-week-old transgenic lines were hand inoculated with 100 nM of flg22. Twenty-four hours post-inoculation, leaf discs were sampled and stained with aniline blue for visualization of callose dots. The bars represent mean ±2× SE of callose dots per image photographed (field of 0.22 square centimeters). Callose dots were quantified with ImageJ. Twenty leaf discs were analyzed per transgenic line. This experiment was repeated three times with similar results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plants", "expressing", "constitutively", "harxls", "accumulate", "ros", "callose"], "article_id"=>387834, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Arabidopsis_plants_expressing_constitutively_HaRxLs_accumulate_less_ROS_and_or_callose_in_response_to_flg22_/387834", "title"=>"<i>Arabidopsis</i> plants expressing constitutively HaRxLs accumulate less ROS and/or callose in response to flg22.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:10:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/716892"], "description"=>"<p>(*) The genome browser is maintained at the Sainsbury Laboratory (<a href=\"http://gbrowse2.tsl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/hpa_emoy2_publication\" target=\"_blank\">gbrowse2.tsl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/hpa_emoy2_publication</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pipeline"], "article_id"=>387225, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bioinformatic_pipeline_used_for_the_identification_of_Hyaloperonospora_arabidopsidis_Hpa_HaRxLs_/387225", "title"=>"Bioinformatic pipeline used for the identification of <i>Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis</i> (<i>Hpa</i>) HaRxLs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:00:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717635"], "description"=>"<p>Graphical comparison of the results obtained using the transient EDV assays and stable constitutive expression for nine different HaRxLs. The phenotypes analyzed include bioluminescence of <i>Pst</i>-LUX, suppression of callose deposition triggered by <i>Pst-</i><i>Δ</i>CEL, growth of <i>Pst-</i><i>Δ</i>avrPto/<i>Δ</i>avrPtoB, suppression of ion leakage triggered by delivering AvrRPM1 via Pf0-1, growth (conidiation) of <i>Hpa</i> compatible (Noco2) and incompatible (Emoy2) isolates, and suppression of the levels of ROS and callose deposition triggered by flg22 treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypes", "observed", "harxl", "effectors"], "article_id"=>387977, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Georgina Fabro", "Jens Steinbrenner", "Mary Coates", "Naveed Ishaque", "Laura Baxter", "David J. Studholme", "Evelyn Körner", "Rebecca L. Allen", "Sophie J. M. Piquerez", "Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso", "David Greenshields", "Rita Lei", "Jorge L. Badel", "Marie-Cecile Caillaud", "Kee-Hoon Sohn", "Guido Van den Ackerveken", "Jane E. Parker", "Jim Beynon", "Jonathan D. G. Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002348.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_phenotypes_observed_upon_expression_of_HaRxL_effectors_in_Arabidopsis_/387977", "title"=>"Summary of phenotypes observed upon expression of HaRxL effectors in <i>Arabidopsis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-03 02:12:57"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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