Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection
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{"title"=>"Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Brian R.", "last_name"=>"Amman", "scopus_author_id"=>"16174321000"}, {"first_name"=>"Serena A.", "last_name"=>"Carroll", "scopus_author_id"=>"36097595400"}, {"first_name"=>"Zachary D.", "last_name"=>"Reed", "scopus_author_id"=>"36893690900"}, {"first_name"=>"Tara K.", "last_name"=>"Sealy", "scopus_author_id"=>"13611810600"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Balinandi", "scopus_author_id"=>"17343628500"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Swanepoel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004599740"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Kemp", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194513165"}, {"first_name"=>"Bobbie Rae", "last_name"=>"Erickson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201472722"}, {"first_name"=>"James A.", "last_name"=>"Comer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103319132"}, {"first_name"=>"Shelley", "last_name"=>"Campbell", "scopus_author_id"=>"37030688800"}, {"first_name"=>"Deborah L.", "last_name"=>"Cannon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103141488"}, {"first_name"=>"Marina L.", "last_name"=>"Khristova", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005582015"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick", "last_name"=>"Atimnedi", "scopus_author_id"=>"34874549000"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher D.", "last_name"=>"Paddock", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006678201"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebekah J.", "last_name"=>"Kent Crockett", "scopus_author_id"=>"50661395900"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy D.", "last_name"=>"Flietstra", "scopus_author_id"=>"37026057800"}, {"first_name"=>"Kelly L.", "last_name"=>"Warfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602864764"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Unfer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506999881"}, {"first_name"=>"Edward", "last_name"=>"Katongole-Mbidde", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603825439"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Downing", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643017900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jordan W.", "last_name"=>"Tappero", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005708945"}, {"first_name"=>"Sherif R.", "last_name"=>"Zaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101848151"}, {"first_name"=>"Pierre E.", "last_name"=>"Rollin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101827480"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas G.", "last_name"=>"Ksiazek", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101963789"}, {"first_name"=>"Stuart T.", "last_name"=>"Nichol", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007051048"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan S.", "last_name"=>"Towner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004172330"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877", "sgr"=>"84868132926", "issn"=>"15537366", "pui"=>"365953693", "isbn"=>"1553-7366", "pmid"=>"23055920", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868132926"}, "id"=>"367f1ac0-5046-3fcb-bf68-37f897ebcb70", "abstract"=>"Marburg virus, like its close relative Ebola virus, can cause large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with case fatalities nearing 90%. For decades the identity of the natural reservoir was unknown. However, in 2007 Marburg viruses were isolated directly from Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) that inhabited a Ugandan gold mine where miners were previously infected. Soon after, two tourists became infected with Marburg virus after visiting nearby Python Cave, a popular attraction in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. This cave also contained R. aegyptiacus bats (∼40,000 animals). These events prompted a long-term investigation of Python Cave to determine if, 1) R. aegyptiacus in the cave carried infectious Marburg virus genetically similar to that found in the tourists, and 2) what ecological factors might influence virus spillover to humans. In the study, we found that, 1) approximately 2.5% of the bat colony is actively infected at any one time and that virus isolates from bats are genetically similar to those from infected tourists, and 2) specific age groups of bats (juveniles∼six months of age) are particularly likely to be infected at specific times of the year that roughly coincide with historical dates of Marburg virus spillover into humans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/seasonal-pulses-marburg-virus-circulation-juvenile-rousettus-aegyptiacus-bats-coincide-periods-incre", "reader_count"=>145, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>83, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>83}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Cameroon"=>1, "United States"=>4, "China"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299003", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/299013"], "description"=>"<div><p>Marburg virus (family <em>Filoviridae</em>) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected <em>Rousettus aegyptiacus</em> fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 <em>R. aegyptiacus</em> were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ∼2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for <em>R. aegyptiacus</em> tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (∼six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with <em>R. aegyptiacus</em> bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a basis for developing Marburg hemorrhagic fever risk reduction strategies.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["seasonal", "pulses", "marburg", "circulation", "juvenile", "bats", "coincide", "periods"], "article_id"=>118942, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Seasonal_Pulses_of_Marburg_Virus_Circulation_in_Juvenile_Rousettus_aegyptiacus_Bats_Coincide_with_Periods_of_Increased_Risk_of_Human_Infection/118942", "title"=>"Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile <em>Rousettus aegyptiacus</em> Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 02:29:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564845"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenetic results from a Bayesian analysis on full-length Marburg virus genome sequences from 12 Marburg bat isolates, 3 recent Ugandan human isolates from the two Kitaka miners (01Uga 2007, 02Uga 2007), and the Dutch tourist (01Uga/Net 2008), as well as 45 historical isolates (<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877#ppat.1002877.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a> for GenBank accession numbers). Posterior probabilities above .50 are shown above the appropriate nodes. Marburg virus sequences from human cases from Kitaka mine (Uganda 2007) in are in orange, sequences from human cases from Python Cave (2008 Uganda) are in blue, sequences from Kitaka Mine bats are in red, and sequences from Python Cave bats are in green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "marburg"], "article_id"=>235309, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_phylogeny_of_full_length_Marburg_genome_/235309", "title"=>"Bayesian phylogeny of full length Marburg genome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:28:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565003"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenetic results from a Bayesian analysis on concatenated NP and VP35 sequence fragments obtained from bat specimens, historical isolates (45), and the recent Ugandan human samples (01Uga 2007, 02Uga 2007, 01Uga/Net 2008) as well as the American tourist (01Uga/USA 2007), for which there was no isolate, only partial Marburg virus sequence (<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877#ppat.1002877.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a> for GenBank accession numbers). Sequences 846QBat_Uga_2009, 849QBat_Uga_2009, 1079QBat_Uga_2009, 1261QBat_Uga_2009, 1328QBat_Uga_2009, and 1511QBat_Uga_2009 represent NP only. Posterior probabilities above .50 are shown above the appropriate nodes. Marburg virus sequences from human cases from Kitaka mine (Uganda 2007) in are in orange, sequences from human cases from Python Cave (2008 Uganda) are in blue, sequences from Kitaka Mine bats are in red, and sequences from Python Cave bats are in green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "marburg", "np", "vp35"], "article_id"=>235461, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_phylogeny_of_Marburg_NP_and_VP35_genes_/235461", "title"=>"Bayesian phylogeny of Marburg NP and VP35 genes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:31:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565159"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Histogram showing the percent of juvenile bats from Kitaka Mine and Python Cave actively infected (Q-RT-PCR+) with Marburg virus during breeding and birthing seasons. (B) Histogram of the percent of adult bats from Kitaka Mine and Python Cave actively infected (Q-RT-PCR+) with Marburg virus during breeding and birthing seasons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["older", "younger", "juvenile", "bats"], "article_id"=>235616, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percent_active_infection_among_older_and_younger_juvenile_bats_and_adults_/235616", "title"=>"Percent active infection among older and younger juvenile bats and adults.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:33:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565279"], "description"=>"<p>Historical spillover events (colored circles on X axis) compared to predicted seasonal levels of PCR+ juveniles (sinusoidal curve). The amplitude of the curve is based on average PCR+ juveniles experimentally determined during birthing (12.4%) and breeding (2.7%) seasons. Large light green vertical rectangles represent the proposed approximate three month seasons of increased risk based on the average level of juvenile infected bats at peak times of encompassing birthing (February and August) and breeding (May and November). Large gray arrows depict the twice yearly influx of newly autonomous juvenile bats born in the prior birthing season. The influx begins at the approximate time of the juvenile's independence from their mothers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["seasonal"], "article_id"=>235740, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Increases_in_seasonal_risk_to_human_health_/235740", "title"=>"Increases in seasonal risk to human health.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:35:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565387"], "description"=>"<p>For reference, approximate TCID50 values for positive tissues were derived from a standard curve of diluted stock virus (371Bat Uga 2007) assayed using the identical Q-RT-PCR assay as that used for the tissues.</p><p>J = juvenile bat (non-pup; forearm length ≤89 mm).</p><p>A = adult bat (forearm length >89 mm).</p><p>++++ = Ct 20–25 = (50,000–1,500,000 TCID<sub>50</sub>/ml).</p><p>+++ = Ct 25–30 = (2000–50,000 TCID<sub>50</sub>/ml).</p><p>++ = Ct 30–35 = (100–2000 TCID<sub>50</sub>/ml).</p><p>+ = Ct 35–39 = (5–100 TCID<sub>50</sub>/ml).</p>*<p>Pool of 3 tissue sections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marburg", "tissues"], "article_id"=>235846, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Rousettus_aegyptiacus_found_positive_for_Marburg_virus_in_multiple_tissues_by_Q_RT_PCR_/235846", "title"=>"Summary of <i>Rousettus aegyptiacus</i> found positive for Marburg virus in multiple tissues by Q-RT-PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:37:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565462"], "description"=>"<p>Historical Marburg spillover events with dates of initial exposure excluding the 2005 Angola outbreak because the initial exposure date was never identified.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marburg", "spillover", "events", "dates", "excluding", "2005", "angola", "outbreak", "was"], "article_id"=>235912, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Historical_Marburg_spillover_events_with_dates_of_initial_exposure_excluding_the_2005_Angola_outbreak_because_the_initial_exposure_date_was_never_identified_/235912", "title"=>"Historical Marburg spillover events with dates of initial exposure excluding the 2005 Angola outbreak because the initial exposure date was never identified.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:38:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/565534"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of <i>Rousettus aegyptiacus</i> caught at Python Cave displayed by class, and PCR, virus isolation, and ELISA results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caught", "python", "displayed", "elisa"], "article_id"=>235988, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Brian R. Amman", "Serena A. Carroll", "Zachary D. Reed", "Tara K. Sealy", "Stephen Balinandi", "Robert Swanepoel", "Alan Kemp", "Bobbie Rae Erickson", "James A. Comer", "Shelley Campbell", "Deborah L. Cannon", "Marina L. Khristova", "Patrick Atimnedi", "Christopher D. Paddock", "Rebekah J. Kent Crockett", "Timothy D. Flietstra", "Kelly L. Warfield", "Robert Unfer", "Edward Katongole-Mbidde", "Robert Downing", "Jordan W. Tappero", "Sherif R. Zaki", "Pierre E. Rollin", "Thomas G. Ksiazek", "Stuart T. Nichol", "Jonathan S. Towner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Rousettus_aegyptiacus_caught_at_Python_Cave_displayed_by_class_and_PCR_virus_isolation_and_ELISA_results_/235988", "title"=>"Summary of <i>Rousettus aegyptiacus</i> caught at Python Cave displayed by class, and PCR, virus isolation, and ELISA results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:39:48"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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