Infection-Induced Interaction between the Mosquito Circulatory and Immune Systems
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Infection-Induced Interaction between the Mosquito Circulatory and Immune Systems", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonas G.", "last_name"=>"King", "scopus_author_id"=>"35885586600"}, {"first_name"=>"Julián F.", "last_name"=>"Hillyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603548555"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84870809250", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058", "pui"=>"366234349", "issn"=>"15537366", "pmid"=>"23209421", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic) 1553-7366 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870809250"}, "id"=>"f65d406a-87ea-3b1a-bda9-0dacb4a0a808", "abstract"=>"Insects counter infection with innate immune responses that rely on cells called hemocytes. Hemocytes exist in association with the insect's open circulatory system and this mode of existence has likely influenced the organization and control of anti-pathogen immune responses. Previous studies reported that pathogens in the mosquito body cavity (hemocoel) accumulate on the surface of the heart. Using novel cell staining, microdissection and intravital imaging techniques, we investigated the mechanism of pathogen accumulation in the pericardium of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and discovered a novel insect immune tissue, herein named periostial hemocytes, that sequesters pathogens as they flow with the hemolymph. Specifically, we show that there are two types of endocytic cells that flank the heart: periostial hemocytes and pericardial cells. Resident periostial hemocytes engage in the rapid phagocytosis of pathogens, and during the course of a bacterial or Plasmodium infection, circulating hemocytes migrate to the periostial regions where they bind the cardiac musculature and each other, and continue the phagocytosis of invaders. Periostial hemocyte aggregation occurs in a time- and infection dose-dependent manner, and once this immune process is triggered, the number of periostial hemocytes remains elevated for the lifetime of the mosquito. Finally, the soluble immune elicitors peptidoglycan and β-1,3-glucan also induce periostial hemocyte aggregation, indicating that this is a generalized and basal immune response that is induced by diverse immune stimuli. These data describe a novel insect cellular immune response that fundamentally relies on the physiological interaction between the insect circulatory and immune systems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/infectioninduced-interaction-between-mosquito-circulatory-immune-systems", "reader_count"=>84, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>65, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>65}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Norway"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84870809250"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84870809250?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84870809250&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84870809250&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84870809250", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84870809250", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84870809250", "dc:title"=>"Infection-Induced Interaction between the Mosquito Circulatory and Immune Systems", "dc:creator"=>"King J.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "prism:issn"=>"15537366", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537374", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-11-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"November 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058", "citedby-count"=>"60", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Vanderbilt University", "affiliation-city"=>"Nashville", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23209421", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1003058", "source-id"=>"4000151809", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplospathogens%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.ppat.1003058", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"234"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"209", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"955"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"273"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"69", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"479"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"251"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"226"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"299"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"156"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"151"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"155"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"196"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"265"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"352"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"425"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"427"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"473"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"354"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"359"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"285"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"394"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"240"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287570", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/287637"], "description"=>"<div><p>Insects counter infection with innate immune responses that rely on cells called hemocytes. Hemocytes exist in association with the insect's open circulatory system and this mode of existence has likely influenced the organization and control of anti-pathogen immune responses. Previous studies reported that pathogens in the mosquito body cavity (hemocoel) accumulate on the surface of the heart. Using novel cell staining, microdissection and intravital imaging techniques, we investigated the mechanism of pathogen accumulation in the pericardium of the malaria mosquito, <em>Anopheles gambiae</em>, and discovered a novel insect immune tissue, herein named periostial hemocytes, that sequesters pathogens as they flow with the hemolymph. Specifically, we show that there are two types of endocytic cells that flank the heart: periostial hemocytes and pericardial cells. Resident periostial hemocytes engage in the rapid phagocytosis of pathogens, and during the course of a bacterial or <em>Plasmodium</em> infection, circulating hemocytes migrate to the periostial regions where they bind the cardiac musculature and each other, and continue the phagocytosis of invaders. Periostial hemocyte aggregation occurs in a time- and infection dose-dependent manner, and once this immune process is triggered, the number of periostial hemocytes remains elevated for the lifetime of the mosquito. Finally, the soluble immune elicitors peptidoglycan and β-1,3-glucan also induce periostial hemocyte aggregation, indicating that this is a generalized and basal immune response that is induced by diverse immune stimuli. These data describe a novel insect cellular immune response that fundamentally relies on the physiological interaction between the insect circulatory and immune systems.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infection-induced", "mosquito", "circulatory", "systems"], "article_id"=>116654, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Infection_Induced_Interaction_between_the_Mosquito_Circulatory_and_Immune_Systems__/116654", "title"=>"Infection-Induced Interaction between the Mosquito Circulatory and Immune Systems", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:50:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535817"], "description"=>"<p>A–B. Lateral view of an entire mosquito (A) and dorsal view of three abdominal segments (B; segments IV, V and VI), illustrating that the dorsal vessel is a tube-like structure that is divided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. During anterograde heart flow (red arrows), hemolymph enters the heart through paired ostia (valves) located in the anterior portion of each abdominal segment, and is propelled to the head, where it exits the dorsal vessel through an excurrent opening. The areas surrounding the ostia are referred in this study as the periostial regions (green arcs). C–D. During retrograde heart flow (blue arrows), hemolymph enters the heart through a single pair of ostia located at the thoraco-abdominal junction, and is propelled to the posterior abdomen, where it exits the dorsal vessel through a paired excurrent opening. For a detailed description of the mosquito heart, see Glenn et al. <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058#ppat.1003058-Glenn1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mechanics", "mosquito", "dorsal"], "article_id"=>206313, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_mechanics_of_the_mosquito_dorsal_vessel_/206313", "title"=>"Structural mechanics of the mosquito dorsal vessel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:45:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/535911"], "description"=>"<p>(A–B) Top down view of a mosquito injected with green fluorescent microspheres 24 h earlier. Microspheres accumulate in the periostial regions of each abdominal segment (arrows and rectangle, which is magnified in B). (C) Pericardial cells (568 nm-IgG; red) flank the heart (phalloidin; green tube that extends horizontally), including the periostial regions (asterisks). (D–E) At 24 h post-infection with GFP-<i>E. coli</i>, numerous acidic cells (LysoTracker Red; red) are associated with the heart. PCs do not phagocytose pathogens. Instead, smaller acidic cells located at the periostial regions intensely phagocytose bacteria (e.g., rectangle in D, which is magnified in E). A, anterior; P, posterior; L, lateral; asterisks, location of the ostia; dotted lines, outline of the heart. In panels C–E, Hoechst 33342 (blue) was used as a nuclear stain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["periostial"], "article_id"=>206414, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Identification_of_periostial_immune_foci_/206414", "title"=>"Identification of periostial immune foci.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536074"], "description"=>"<p>(A–B) Perfused hemocytes from mosquitoes injected with CM-DiI (red) and Hoechst 33342 (blue; nuclear stain). CM-DiI stains individual hemocytes (B) and hemocyte aggregates (A) from both naïve (A) and <i>E. coli</i>-infected (B) mosquitoes. (C) Bright field and fluorescence overlay of hemocytes, fat body and free nuclei collected by perfusion. Only hemocytes stain with CM-DiI. (D) Quantitative analysis of in vivo CM-DiI staining in perfused cells from naïve, injured (LB) and <i>E. coli</i>-infected mosquitoes. Greater than 97% of hemocytes stain with CM-DiI, fewer than 5% of fat body cells stain with CM-DiI, and free nuclei do not stain with CM-DiI. Columns, mean; bars, standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["selectively", "stains", "hemocytes"], "article_id"=>206571, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CM_DiI_selectively_stains_hemocytes_in_vivo_/206571", "title"=>"CM-DiI selectively stains hemocytes in vivo.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:49:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536244"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Heart musculature (phalloidin; green) and hemocytes (CM-DiI; red) 24 h following infection with non-fluorescent <i>E. coli</i>, showing hemocytes at the periostial regions. (B) Periostial hemocytes (red) 24 h after GFP-<i>E. coli</i> (green) infection, showing phagocytosis and melanization (dark spots) reactions. (C) Pericardial cells (488 nm-IgG; green) and hemocytes (red) following infection with non-fluorescent <i>E. coli</i>, showing that PCs and periostial hemocytes are structurally distinct. (D–E) Fluorescence overlay (D) and 3D volume view (E; dotted circle marks the lumen of the heart) of periostial phagocytic foci, demonstrating the co-localization of phagocytosis and CM-DiI stained hemocytes in all three dimensions. (F) 3D-rendered volume views illustrating the spatial separation of periostial hemocytes and PCs. The point of view is looking through the lumen of the vessel (yellow circle), with the heart located dorsally and the alary muscles extending laterally in the ventral portion of the image. The PCs (red; 568 nm-IgG) occur within the fan-like alary muscles (green horizontal line; phalloidin), while phagocytosis (red microspheres) and hemocytes (red; CM-DiI) occur toward the dorsal edge of the heart. (G–H) Dorsal (G) and ventral (H) views of one abdominal segment (centered around an abdominal suture) showing that periostial foci are the major hemocyte aggregates within the mosquito's abdomen. (I) <i>E. coli</i> uptake in the dorsal and ventral abdomen at 3 and 12 h post-infection. Phagocytosis levels in the dorsal abdomen increase between 3 and 12 h post-infection. (J–L) Quantification of <i>E. coli</i> fluorescence in the abdomen. Images of the dorsal and ventral abdomen were acquired (portion of an image from the dorsal abdomen shown in J), thresholded (K), and the percentage of <i>E. coli</i> fluorescence in the periostial regions relative to the dorsal abdomen or the entire abdomen (dorsal+ventral) was calculated (L). Between 6 and 24 h post-infection, sum intensity of periostial <i>E. coli</i> is ≥60% and ≥40% of the dorsal and entire abdominal <i>E. coli</i>, respectively. Bars represent the standard error of the mean. D, dorsal; V, ventral; A, anterior; P, posterior; L, lateral; asterisks, location of the ostia; dotted lines; outline of the heart. In panels A–D, Hoechst 33342 (blue) was used as a nuclear stain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["periostial", "phagocytic", "proximity", "pericardial", "cells"], "article_id"=>206741, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hemocytes_form_periostial_phagocytic_foci_which_occur_in_close_proximity_to_the_pericardial_cells_PCs_/206741", "title"=>"Hemocytes form periostial phagocytic foci, which occur in close proximity to the pericardial cells (PCs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:52:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536431"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Top-down view of a mosquito, outlining the region observed in panels B, C, E and F. (B–C) Time-lapse images of a periostial region of a mosquito whose hemocytes had been labeled with CM-DiI prior to infection (Movie S1). The heart is outlined by dotted lines and the asterisks denote the ostia. During the first 1,000 sec post-infection with <i>E. coli</i> little hemocyte (red) movement is observed (B), but phagocytosis of <i>E. coli</i> (green) by resident periostial hemocytes begins within seconds of infection (C). (D) Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis of Movie S1 (B–C), quantitatively showing the rapid co-localization of hemocytes and <i>E. coli</i>. (E–F) Time-lapse images showing the migration of hemocytes (red) to the periostial regions during the first hour post-infection with <i>E. coli</i> (Movie S2). At the time of infection, 6 CM-DiI stained hemocytes flank the heart (E), and during the first hour of infection at least 6 additional hemocytes attach at the periostial region (F; dotted circles). The movement of each migrating hemocyte is shown in panel E using colored lines, with the circles marking the points of first observance and the arrows marking the points of attachment. (G) Velocity and acceleration of the hemocytes tracked in panels E and F as they migrate to the periostial regions (Movie S2), showing that hemocytes glide across the alary muscles at a median velocity of 1.2 µm/sec. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, lateral.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hemocytes", "phagocytose", "pathogens", "induces", "recruitment", "periostial"], "article_id"=>206923, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Periostial_hemocytes_rapidly_phagocytose_pathogens_and_infection_induces_the_recruitment_of_additional_periostial_hemocytes_/206923", "title"=>"Periostial hemocytes rapidly phagocytose pathogens and infection induces the recruitment of additional periostial hemocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:55:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536589"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Periostial hemocytes numbers in naïve mosquitoes, injured mosquitoes (LB), and mosquitoes infected for 24 h with <i>E. coli</i> (OD1–OD5). Resident periostial hemocytes are present in naïve mosquitoes and injury does not trigger hemocyte recruitment, but infection triggers hemocyte migration to the periostial regions in a dose-dependent manner. (B) Dynamics of periostial hemocyte numbers in naïve and <i>E. coli</i> (OD4)-infected mosquitoes. Following high-intensity infection, hemocyte recruitment to the periostial regions is complete by 4 h post-infection. Columns mark the mean and bars denote the standard error of the mean. P-values result from one-way ANOVA, and asterisks denote treatment groups that are significantly different from the reference group (R; Tukey's test). (C–E) Resident periostial hemocytes (red) in naïve mosquitoes (C), and both small (D) and large (E) periostial hemocyte aggregates in GFP-<i>E. coli</i> (green)-infected mosquitoes. (F) Average GFP-<i>E. coli</i> intensity in the periostial regions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following infection. <i>E. coli</i> intensity peaks at 12 h post-infection and then recedes. Columns mark the mean and bars denote the standard error of the mean. P-value results from one-way ANOVA, and asterisk denotes the treatment group that is significantly different all others (R; Tukey's test). A, anterior; P, posterior; L, lateral; asterisk, location of the ostia; dotted lines, outline of the heart. Hoechst 33342 (blue) was used as a nuclear stain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hemocyte", "aggregation", "occurs", "leads", "bacterial"], "article_id"=>207085, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Periostial_hemocyte_aggregation_occurs_in_a_dose_and_time_dependent_manner_and_leads_to_bacterial_death_/207085", "title"=>"Periostial hemocyte aggregation occurs in a dose and time dependent manner, and leads to bacterial death.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 01:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536702"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Periostial hemocyte numbers in naïve mosquitoes and mosquitoes infected with low levels of <i>E. coli</i> (OD2) for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 12 days. Columns mark the mean and bars denote the standard error of the mean. The numbers of hemocytes in infected mosquitoes returns to pre-infection levels by 3 days post-infection, but are maintained at higher levels relative to naïve mosquitoes for the lifetime of the mosquito. (A, inset) Ratio of hemocytes in infected vs. naïve mosquitoes at different times post-treatment. (B) <i>E. coli</i> (green) persists at 12 days post infection, with hemocytes (red; CM-DiI) remaining immunologically active in the periostial regions. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, lateral; asterisk, location of the ostia; dotted lines, outline of the heart. Hoechst 33342 (blue) was used as a nuclear stain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hemocyte", "aggregates", "disperse", "days"], "article_id"=>207201, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Periostial_hemocyte_aggregates_begin_to_disperse_several_days_after_infection_/207201", "title"=>"Periostial hemocyte aggregates begin to disperse several days after infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 02:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/536784"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Hemocyte numbers in the periostial regions following treatment with soluble immune elicitors. Columns mark the mean and bars denote the standard error of the mean. P-value results from one-way ANOVA, and asterisks denote treatment groups that are significantly different from the reference group (R; Tukey's test). Peptidoglycan (PGN) from both Gram (−) and Gram (+) bacteria, as well as β-1,3-glucan, elicit the migration of hemocytes to the periostial regions. (B–D) DIC and fluorescence images of a periostial region at 24 h and 5 days after Gram (+) peptidoglycan injection (B–C) or 24 h after β-1,3-glucan injection (D). Large hemocyte aggregates (CM-DiI; red) and melanin deposits (black) are observed. (E) Periostial hemocyte numbers 20 days after mosquitoes received a normal (non-infected) or <i>Plasmodium berghei</i>-infected blood meal. Columns mark the mean, bars denote the standard error of the mean, and the P-value results from an unpaired t-test. <i>Plasmodium</i> sporozoite migration induces hemocyte aggregation in the periostial regions. (F) DIC and fluorescence images of a periostial region at 20 days following infection with <i>Plasmodium berghei</i>. Signs of melanization (black) were sometimes present and overlap was often seen between periostial hemocytes (CM-DiI; red) and green puncta, which represent the remnants of destroyed sporozoites (PbGFP<sub>CON</sub>; green). (G) Hemocyte (CM-DiI; red; cell boundaries are outlined) and <i>Plasmodium</i> (PbGFP<sub>CON</sub>; green) fluorescence overlay (top), showing the phagocytosis of multiple sporozoites by periostial hemocytes. Hoechst 33342 fluorescence channel (bottom) shows that the nuclei of <i>Plasmodium</i> sporozoites (arrows) are contained within periostial hemocytes. (H) Interactions between <i>P. berghei</i> sporozoites (Pb RedStar; red) and periostial hemocytes (CM-DiO, a CM-DiI analog; green), with arrow pointing to hemocyte-mediated <i>Plasmodium</i> fragmentation. A, anterior; P, posterior; L, lateral; asterisk, location of the ostia; dotted lines, outline of the heart. Hoechst 33342 (blue) was used as a nuclear stain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elicitors", "induce", "periostial", "hemocyte"], "article_id"=>207283, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Jonas G. King", "Julián F. Hillyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003058.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Soluble_immune_elicitors_and_Plasmodium_berghei_infection_induce_periostial_hemocyte_aggregation_/207283", "title"=>"Soluble immune elicitors and <i>Plasmodium berghei</i> infection induce periostial hemocyte aggregation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-11-29 02:01:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"48", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[312, 555, 680, 785, 880, 965, 1057, 1142, 1230, 1312, 1394, 1471, 1547, 1613, 1681, 1743, 1805, 1871, 1941, 2010, 2071, 2128, 2202, 2266, 2323]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Parasitology", "average_usage"=>[352, 609, 728, 831, 918, 998, 1091, 1195, 1289, 1369, 1442, 1504, 1573, 1647, 1722, 1799, 1877, 1938, 2013, 2106, 2166, 2242, 2306, 2371, 2452]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[308, 539, 659, 759, 852, 941, 1028, 1113, 1197, 1275, 1353, 1423]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Epidemiology", "average_usage"=>[318, 557, 682, 789, 871, 969, 1067, 1153, 1246, 1337, 1418, 1488, 1573, 1633, 1695, 1767, 1835, 1928, 1974, 2020, 2082, 2139, 2202, 2263, 2341]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[307, 545, 668, 765, 855, 943, 1029, 1113, 1202, 1285, 1361, 1439, 1506, 1571, 1636, 1706, 1772, 1837, 1901, 1969, 2031, 2096, 2160, 2228, 2287]}]}

F1000Prime | Further Information

Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts