Nox2 Modification of LDL Is Essential for Optimal Apolipoprotein B-mediated Control of agr Type III Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-sensing
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{"title"=>"Nox2 Modification of LDL Is Essential for Optimal Apolipoprotein B-mediated Control of agr Type III Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-sensing", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Pamela R.", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403693839"}, {"first_name"=>"Bradley O.", "last_name"=>"Elmore", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604097988"}, {"first_name"=>"Cynthia H.", "last_name"=>"Spang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55989204200"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan M.", "last_name"=>"Alexander", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197665549"}, {"first_name"=>"Brett C.", "last_name"=>"Manifold-Wheeler", "scopus_author_id"=>"24281761000"}, {"first_name"=>"Moriah J.", "last_name"=>"Castleman", "scopus_author_id"=>"53866214600"}, {"first_name"=>"Seth M.", "last_name"=>"Daly", "scopus_author_id"=>"55989115100"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Michal", "last_name"=>"Peterson", "scopus_author_id"=>"25723775300"}, {"first_name"=>"Erin K.", "last_name"=>"Sully", "scopus_author_id"=>"56563937600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon K.", "last_name"=>"Femling", "scopus_author_id"=>"8934377100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Otto", "scopus_author_id"=>"56758333300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander R.", "last_name"=>"Horswill", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603536558"}, {"first_name"=>"Graham S.", "last_name"=>"Timmins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003907553"}, {"first_name"=>"Hattie D.", "last_name"=>"Gresham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003651854"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537366", "pmid"=>"23459693", "pui"=>"368489986", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874774433", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84874774433"}, "id"=>"8321d2c6-9b7d-3b88-9108-279187623ecd", "abstract"=>"Staphylococcus aureus contains an autoinducing quorum-sensing system encoded within the agr operon that coordinates expression of virulence genes required for invasive infection. Allelic variation within agr has generated four agr specific groups, agr I-IV, each of which secretes a distinct autoinducing peptide pheromone (AIP1-4) that drives agr signaling. Because agr signaling mediates a phenotypic change in this pathogen from an adherent colonizing phenotype to one associated with considerable tissue injury and invasiveness, we postulated that a significant contribution to host defense against tissue damaging and invasive infections could be provided by innate immune mechanisms that antagonize agr signaling. We determined whether two host defense factors that inhibit AIP1-induced agrI signaling, Nox2 and apolipoprotein B (apoB), also contribute to innate control of AIP3-induced agrIII signaling. We hypothesized that apoB and Nox2 would function differently against AIP3, which differs from AIP1 in amino acid sequence and length. Here we show that unlike AIP1, AIP3 is resistant to direct oxidant inactivation by Nox2 characteristic ROS. Rather, the contribution of Nox2 to defense against agrIII signaling is through oxidation of LDL. ApoB in the context of oxLDL, and not LDL, provides optimal host defense against S. aureus agrIII infection by binding the secreted signaling peptide, AIP3, and preventing expression of the agr-driven virulence factors which mediate invasive infection. ApoB within the context of oxLDL also binds AIP 1-4 and oxLDL antagonizes agr signaling by all four agr alleles. Our results suggest that Nox2-mediated oxidation of LDL facilitates a conformational change in apoB to one sufficient for binding and sequestration of all four AIPs, demonstrating the interdependence of apoB and Nox2 in host defense against agr signaling. These data reveal a novel role for oxLDL in host defense against S. aureus quorum-sensing signaling.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/nox2-modification-ldl-essential-optimal-apolipoprotein-bmediated-control-agr-type-iii-staphylococcus", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Chemistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489428"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) Bacteria were cultured overnight in the presence of media control or oxLDL (50 nM). (A) RNAIII and (B) <i>hla</i> transcription relative to 16S rRNA was determined by qRT-PCR (C) Alpha-hemolysin content of culture supernatants was measured by the ability to lyse rRBCs. (D) Supernatants from (C) were also assessed for lipase activity determined by rate of cleavage of the triglyceride substrate tributyrin. Data reported as the mean ± SEM. *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001; ****, p<0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oxldl", "antagonism", "virulence", "mrsa", "mssa"], "article_id"=>159936, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Pamela R. Hall", "Bradley O. Elmore", "Cynthia H. Spang", "Susan M. Alexander", "Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler", "Moriah J. Castleman", "Seth M. Daly", "M. Michal Peterson", "Erin K. Sully", "Jon K. Femling", "Michael Otto", "Alexander R. Horswill", "Graham S. Timmins", "Hattie D. Gresham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_oxLDL_on_antagonism_of_agr_III_dependent_virulence_factor_production_by_MRSA_and_MSSA_clinical_isolates_/159936", "title"=>"Effect of oxLDL on antagonism of <i>agr</i>III dependent virulence factor production by MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:45:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489145"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic representation of AIP1 and AIP3. (B) Strain <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] was cultured overnight with broth control or 10 nM LDL, apoB or oxLDL, and <i>agr</i>::P3 activation was measured by flow cytometry. Colony forming units (cfus) were determined by plating on sheep blood agar. (C) Anti-apoB antibody reverses antagonism of <i>agr</i>::P3 promoter activation in MW2. Strain <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] was cultured overnight with broth control, 10 nM apoB or oxLDL, along with 30 nM control IgG or 30 nM apoB-specific IgG. (D) LDL, ApoB or oxLDL binding to immobilized AIP3 was measured by SPR following lipoprotein incubation with apoB-specific IgG or control IgG. Data were normalized to the mean ± SEM of LDL binding in the absence of antibody. (E) Blood was collected from wild-type or <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice. After clearing, the serum was heat inactivated and diluted to 10% in TSB for overnight culture with strain <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp]. <i>agr</i>::P3 promoter activation was measured by flow cytometry. Data reported are the mean ± SEM normalized to broth control. (F) Strain <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] cultured 4 h with 100 nM AIP plus 10% sera from <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice along with 50 nM LDL or 50 nM oxLDL. Data points represent the mean ± SEM normalized to broth control. (G) Immunoblot detection of apoB and oxidized LDL. Control LDL and oxLDL plus serum from wild-type and <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice were vacuum transferred to nitrocellulose and stained for oxLDL using monoclonal antibody E06 or rabbit polyclonal antibody to apoB. A representative blot is shown. Band intensity was quantified using Carestream Molecular Imaging software (New Haven, Connecticut), and data normalized to oxLDL or wild-type sera with E06/apoB ratios equal to 1. (H) Strain <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] was cultured overnight with exogenous AIP3 (50 nM) and 10 nM of either human LDL, human oxLDL, LDL purified from wild-type mice, LDL purified from <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice or broth control. ns, not significant; *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["apolipoprotein", "b-mediated", "antagonism", "requires", "oxidation", "ldl"], "article_id"=>159646, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Pamela R. Hall", "Bradley O. Elmore", "Cynthia H. Spang", "Susan M. Alexander", "Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler", "Moriah J. Castleman", "Seth M. Daly", "M. Michal Peterson", "Erin K. Sully", "Jon K. Femling", "Michael Otto", "Alexander R. Horswill", "Graham S. Timmins", "Hattie D. Gresham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optimal_apolipoprotein_B_mediated_antagonism_of_agr_III_signaling_requires_oxidation_of_LDL_via_Nox2_/159646", "title"=>"Optimal apolipoprotein B-mediated antagonism of <i>agr</i>III-signaling requires oxidation of LDL via Nox2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:40:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/486020", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/486022", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/486023", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/486026", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/486027"], "description"=>"<div><p><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> contains an autoinducing quorum-sensing system encoded within the <em>agr</em> operon that coordinates expression of virulence genes required for invasive infection. Allelic variation within <em>agr</em> has generated four <em>agr</em> specific groups, <em>agr</em> I–IV, each of which secretes a distinct autoinducing peptide pheromone (AIP1-4) that drives <em>agr</em> signaling. Because <em>agr</em> signaling mediates a phenotypic change in this pathogen from an adherent colonizing phenotype to one associated with considerable tissue injury and invasiveness, we postulated that a significant contribution to host defense against tissue damaging and invasive infections could be provided by innate immune mechanisms that antagonize <em>agr</em> signaling. We determined whether two host defense factors that inhibit AIP1-induced <em>agr</em>I signaling, Nox2 and apolipoprotein B (apoB), also contribute to innate control of AIP3-induced <em>agr</em>III signaling. We hypothesized that apoB and Nox2 would function differently against AIP3, which differs from AIP1 in amino acid sequence and length. Here we show that unlike AIP1, AIP3 is resistant to direct oxidant inactivation by Nox2 characteristic ROS. Rather, the contribution of Nox2 to defense against <em>agr</em>III signaling is through oxidation of LDL. ApoB in the context of oxLDL, and not LDL, provides optimal host defense against <em>S. aureus agr</em>III infection by binding the secreted signaling peptide, AIP3, and preventing expression of the <em>agr</em>-driven virulence factors which mediate invasive infection. ApoB within the context of oxLDL also binds AIP 1-4 and oxLDL antagonizes <em>agr</em> signaling by all four <em>agr</em> alleles. Our results suggest that Nox2-mediated oxidation of LDL facilitates a conformational change in apoB to one sufficient for binding and sequestration of all four AIPs, demonstrating the interdependence of apoB and Nox2 in host defense against <em>agr</em> signaling. These data reveal a novel role for oxLDL in host defense against <em>S. aureus</em> quorum-sensing signaling.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nox2", "modification", "ldl", "optimal", "apolipoprotein", "b-mediated", "iii", "quorum-sensing"], "article_id"=>157068, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Pamela R. Hall", "Bradley O. Elmore", "Cynthia H. Spang", "Susan M. Alexander", "Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler", "Moriah J. Castleman", "Seth M. Daly", "M. Michal Peterson", "Erin K. Sully", "Jon K. Femling", "Michael Otto", "Alexander R. Horswill", "Graham S. Timmins", "Hattie D. Gresham"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>43, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Nox2_Modification_of_LDL_Is_Essential_for_Optimal_Apolipoprotein_B_mediated_Control_of_agr_Type_III_Staphylococcus_aureus_Quorum_sensing__/157068", "title"=>"Nox2 Modification of LDL Is Essential for Optimal Apolipoprotein B-mediated Control of <em>agr</em> Type III <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> Quorum-sensing", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 01:57:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489689"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Control LDL and oxLDL plus air-pouch lavage from MW2 infected wild-type and <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice was vacuum transferred to nitrocellulose and stained for oxLDL using monoclonal antibody E06 or rabbit polyclonal antibody to apoB. A representative blot is shown. Band intensity was quantified using Carestream Molecular Imaging software (New Haven, Connecticut), and data normalized to oxLDL or wild-type lavage with E06/apoB ratios equal to 1. (B) Air-pouches were generated on the backs of 8 to 12 week old <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice treated with 4APP as previously described. At time zero, 4×10<sup>7</sup> cfu of early exponential phase <i>agr</i>III isolate MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] were injected into the air-pouch along with saline control or the following as indicated: 100 nM AIP3 and either buffer control, 100 nM LDL or 100 nM oxLDL. After 4 h pouches were lavaged and <i>agr</i>::P3 promoter activation assessed by flow cytometry. Data reported are the mean ± SEM normalized to PBS/AIP3 control. ns, not significant; *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oxldl", "restores", "vivo", "antagonism"], "article_id"=>160200, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Pamela R. Hall", "Bradley O. Elmore", "Cynthia H. Spang", "Susan M. Alexander", "Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler", "Moriah J. Castleman", "Seth M. Daly", "M. Michal Peterson", "Erin K. Sully", "Jon K. Femling", "Michael Otto", "Alexander R. Horswill", "Graham S. Timmins", "Hattie D. Gresham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exogenous_oxLDL_restores_in_vivo_antagonism_of_agr_III_signaling_/160200", "title"=>"Exogenous oxLDL restores in vivo antagonism of <i>agr</i>III-signaling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 00:03:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489581"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B) LDL, apoB or oxLDL at equimolar concentrations of apoB were treated as shown with (A) HOCl for 30 min at 37°C, with or without prior addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetylmethionine (NAM), or (B) singlet oxygen (5 min on ice). 10 nM ROS-treated lipoproteins or controls were cultured overnight with <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] plus 50 nM AIP. <i>agr</i>:P3 promoter activation was measured by flow cytometry. (C) Strain <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] was cultured overnight with 50 nM AIP3 plus LDL treated with increasing concentrations of singlet oxygen. (D) Measurement of LDL lipid oxidation before and after exposure to singlet oxygen or HOCl. Commercially available oxLDL and bovine serum albumin are given as controls. Data represent the mean ± SEM. (E) AIP1 and AIP3 were incubated with buffer or HOCl for 30 min at 37°C, treated with NAM to scavenge remaining ROS, and cultured at 50 nM for 2 h with <i>agr</i>I isolate LAC [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] or <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp], respectively. Data was measured by flow cytometry. Data points represent the mean ± SEM normalized to 100% activation by untreated AIP and statistics are in reference to this control. (F) AIP1 and AIP3 were exposed to singlet oxygen by incubation with rose bengal in the presence or absence of light, prior to culture with <i>agr</i>I isolate LAC [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp] or <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp]. Data points represent the mean ± SEM normalized to 100% activation by untreated AIP and statistics are in reference to this control. (G) AIP1 was combined with buffer or a 10-fold molar excess of ethylthioacetate prior to exposure to singlet oxygen, followed by culture with <i>agr</i>I isolate LAC [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp]. Data points represent the mean ± SEM of the mean channel fluorescence. ns, not significant; *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001; ****, p<0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oxidation", "ldl", "aip3", "mediates", "antagonism", "quorum"], "article_id"=>160084, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Pamela R. Hall", "Bradley O. Elmore", "Cynthia H. Spang", "Susan M. Alexander", "Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler", "Moriah J. Castleman", "Seth M. Daly", "M. Michal Peterson", "Erin K. Sully", "Jon K. Femling", "Michael Otto", "Alexander R. Horswill", "Graham S. Timmins", "Hattie D. Gresham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ROS_dependent_oxidation_of_LDL_but_not_of_AIP3_mediates_antagonism_of_agr_III_dependent_quorum_sensing_/160084", "title"=>"ROS-dependent oxidation of LDL but not of AIP3 mediates antagonism of <i>agr</i>III-dependent quorum sensing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 00:01:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489305"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Blood was collected from wild-type or <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice treated with 4APP or vehicle control. After clearing, the serum was heat inactivated and diluted to 10% in TSB for overnight culture with <i>agr</i>III MW2 [<i>agr</i>::P3-yfp]. <i>agr</i>::P3 promoter activation was measured by flow cytometry. Data reported are the mean ± SEM normalized to broth control at 100%. (B) Air-pouch schematic showing locations of lumen, epidermis, dermis and muscle. (C–E) Air-pouches were generated on the backs of 8 to 12 week old wild-type or <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice. Where indicated 4APP treated mice were injected i.p. with 100 µl of 5 mg/ml 4APP or vehicle control at 48 h and 24 h prior to infection with MW2 or its <i>agr</i> deletion mutant (Δ<i>agr</i>) at the indicated concentrations. At time zero, air-pouches were injected with early exponential phase MW2. At 28 h post-infection, the following parameters were determined and data reported as the mean ± SEM: (Left to right) Representative confocal images of dermis from indicated pouches stained with TO-PRO-3 (Invitrogen; blue) and anti-<i>S. aureus</i> antibody (green fluorophore) (Scale bar = 20 µm); Quantification of bacterial density in dermis of pouches; Morbidity was scored on a 0–14 point scale and was based on weight loss, appearance, level of dehydration, mobility and responsiveness; Bacterial burden (Log CFU) in spleen. (C) Wild-type mice treated with 4APP or vehicle control. (D) <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice treated with 4APP or vehicle control. (E) Wild-type and <i>Nox2<sup>−/−</sup></i> mice. *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001; ****, p<0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum", "apob", "levels", "knockout", "mice", "wild-type", "increases", "susceptibility"], "article_id"=>159806, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Pamela R. Hall", "Bradley O. Elmore", "Cynthia H. Spang", "Susan M. Alexander", "Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler", "Moriah J. Castleman", "Seth M. Daly", "M. Michal Peterson", "Erin K. Sully", "Jon K. Femling", "Michael Otto", "Alexander R. Horswill", "Graham S. Timmins", "Hattie D. Gresham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003166.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reduction_of_serum_apoB_levels_in_Nox2_knockout_mice_but_not_wild_type_mice_significantly_increases_susceptibility_to_agr_III_mediated_S_aur_eus_virulence_/159806", "title"=>"Reduction of serum apoB levels in <i>Nox2</i> knockout mice but not wild-type mice significantly increases susceptibility to <i>agr</i>III-mediated <i>S. aur</i>eus virulence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-14 02:43:26"}

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Relative Metric

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