Influenza Virus Aerosols in Human Exhaled Breath: Particle Size, Culturability, and Effect of Surgical Masks
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{"title"=>"Influenza Virus Aerosols in Human Exhaled Breath: Particle Size, Culturability, and Effect of Surgical Masks", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Donald K.", "last_name"=>"Milton", "scopus_author_id"=>"35434286800"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Patricia", "last_name"=>"Fabian", "scopus_author_id"=>"36086088700"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin J.", "last_name"=>"Cowling", "scopus_author_id"=>"8644765500"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"Grantham", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701487938"}, {"first_name"=>"James J.", "last_name"=>"McDevitt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007043454"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875981136", "pui"=>"368694551", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84875981136", "pmid"=>"23505369"}, "id"=>"96862bd9-17cb-38df-8ef8-475c101a0a0f", "abstract"=>"The CDC recommends that healthcare settings provide influenza patients with facemasks as a means of reducing transmission to staff and other patients, and a recent report suggested that surgical masks can capture influenza virus in large droplet spray. However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza. We collected samples of exhaled particles (one with and one without a facemask) in two size fractions (\"coarse\">5 µm, \"fine\"≤5 µm) from 37 volunteers within 5 days of seasonal influenza onset, measured viral copy number using quantitative RT-PCR, and tested the fine-particle fraction for culturable virus. Fine particles contained 8.8 (95% CI 4.1 to 19) fold more viral copies than did coarse particles. Surgical masks reduced viral copy numbers in the fine fraction by 2.8 fold (95% CI 1.5 to 5.2) and in the coarse fraction by 25 fold (95% CI 3.5 to 180). Overall, masks produced a 3.4 fold (95% CI 1.8 to 6.3) reduction in viral aerosol shedding. Correlations between nasopharyngeal swab and the aerosol fraction copy numbers were weak (r = 0.17, coarse; r = 0.29, fine fraction). Copy numbers in exhaled breath declined rapidly with day after onset of illness. Two subjects with the highest copy numbers gave culture positive fine particle samples. Surgical masks worn by patients reduce aerosols shedding of virus. The abundance of viral copies in fine particle aerosols and evidence for their infectiousness suggests an important role in seasonal influenza transmission. Monitoring exhaled virus aerosols will be important for validation of experimental transmission studies in humans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/influenza-virus-aerosols-human-exhaled-breath-particle-size-culturability-effect-surgical-masks", "reader_count"=>103, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>11, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>11}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/979850"], "description"=>"<p>Counts below the limit of detection are represented as 0.5 on the log scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aerosol", "particles", "exhaled", "patients", "wearing", "ear-loop", "surgical"], "article_id"=>646423, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Donald K. Milton", "M. Patricia Fabian", "Benjamin J. Cowling", "Michael L. Grantham", "James J. McDevitt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influenza_virus_copy_number_in_aerosol_particles_exhaled_by_patients_with_and_without_wearing_of_an_ear_loop_surgical_mask_/646423", "title"=>"Influenza virus copy number in aerosol particles exhaled by patients with and without wearing of an ear-loop surgical mask.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 08:42:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/979860"], "description"=>"<p>Each volunteer sat as shown with face inside the inlet cone of the human exhaled breath air sampler inside a booth supplied with HEPA filtered, humidified air for 30 min while wearing an ear-loop surgical mask. Three times during the 30 min each subject was asked to cough 10 times. After investigators changed the collection media, the volunteer sat in the cone again, without wearing a surgical mask, for another 30 min with coughing as before.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemistry", "Infectious diseases", "public health and epidemiology"], "article_id"=>646428, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Donald K. Milton", "M. Patricia Fabian", "Benjamin J. Cowling", "Michael L. Grantham", "James J. McDevitt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Exhaled_breath_collection_system_/646428", "title"=>"Exhaled breath collection system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 08:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/979867"], "description"=>"<div><p>The CDC recommends that healthcare settings provide influenza patients with facemasks as a means of reducing transmission to staff and other patients, and a recent report suggested that surgical masks can capture influenza virus in large droplet spray. However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza.</p> <p>We collected samples of exhaled particles (one with and one without a facemask) in two size fractions (“coarse”>5 µm, “fine”≤5 µm) from 37 volunteers within 5 days of seasonal influenza onset, measured viral copy number using quantitative RT-PCR, and tested the fine-particle fraction for culturable virus.</p> <p>Fine particles contained 8.8 (95% CI 4.1 to 19) fold more viral copies than did coarse particles. Surgical masks reduced viral copy numbers in the fine fraction by 2.8 fold (95% CI 1.5 to 5.2) and in the coarse fraction by 25 fold (95% CI 3.5 to 180). Overall, masks produced a 3.4 fold (95% CI 1.8 to 6.3) reduction in viral aerosol shedding. Correlations between nasopharyngeal swab and the aerosol fraction copy numbers were weak (r = 0.17, coarse; r = 0.29, fine fraction). Copy numbers in exhaled breath declined rapidly with day after onset of illness. Two subjects with the highest copy numbers gave culture positive fine particle samples.</p> <p>Surgical masks worn by patients reduce aerosols shedding of virus. The abundance of viral copies in fine particle aerosols and evidence for their infectiousness suggests an important role in seasonal influenza transmission. Monitoring exhaled virus aerosols will be important for validation of experimental transmission studies in humans.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influenza", "aerosols", "exhaled", "surgical", "masks"], "article_id"=>646430, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Donald K. Milton", "M. Patricia Fabian", "Benjamin J. Cowling", "Michael L. Grantham", "James J. McDevitt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Influenza_Virus_Aerosols_in_Human_Exhaled_Breath_Particle_Size_Culturability_and_Effect_of_Surgical_Masks__/646430", "title"=>"Influenza Virus Aerosols in Human Exhaled Breath: Particle Size, Culturability, and Effect of Surgical Masks", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-08 08:44:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1006424"], "description"=>"a<p>Self-reported.</p>b<p>At time of exhaled breath measurement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influenza"], "article_id"=>667048, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Donald K. Milton", "M. Patricia Fabian", "Benjamin J. Cowling", "Michael L. Grantham", "James J. McDevitt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participant_s_sex_symptoms_temperature_and_influenza_virus_type_/667048", "title"=>"Participant's sex, symptoms, temperature, and influenza virus type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-07 01:57:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1006442"], "description"=>"a<p>\n <b>At time of exhaled breath measurement.</b></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chemistry", "Infectious diseases", "public health and epidemiology"], "article_id"=>667068, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Donald K. Milton", "M. Patricia Fabian", "Benjamin J. Cowling", "Michael L. Grantham", "James J. McDevitt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_/667068", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-07 01:57:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1006462"], "description"=>"a<p>Because there were only single cases studied on day 0 (day of onset) and on day 5 since onset of symptoms, only data for cases studied on days 1 through 4 after onset of symptoms are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coarse", "exhaled", "particles", "surgical", "onset", "influenza"], "article_id"=>667083, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Donald K. Milton", "M. Patricia Fabian", "Benjamin J. Cowling", "Michael L. Grantham", "James J. McDevitt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003205.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Copy_number_coarse_and_fine_exhaled_particles_without_surgical_mask_by_day_since_onset_of_influenza_symptoms_/667083", "title"=>"Copy number coarse and fine exhaled particles without surgical mask by day since onset of influenza symptoms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-03-07 01:58:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"39", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1030", "full-text"=>"1214", "pdf"=>"185", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18918", "full-text"=>"25037", "pdf"=>"658", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"93", "supp-data"=>"20", "cited-by"=>"24", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11622", "full-text"=>"16773", "pdf"=>"727", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"106", "supp-data"=>"35", "cited-by"=>"12", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6945", "full-text"=>"8540", "pdf"=>"509", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"59", "supp-data"=>"32", "cited-by"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3720", "full-text"=>"4676", "pdf"=>"246", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"13", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3263", "full-text"=>"4819", "pdf"=>"182", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2527", "full-text"=>"3344", "pdf"=>"93", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2187", "full-text"=>"2805", "pdf"=>"99", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1429", "full-text"=>"1918", "pdf"=>"59", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
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Relative Metric

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