Differential Adaptation of Candida albicans In Vivo Modulates Immune Recognition by Dectin-1
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{"title"=>"Differential Adaptation of Candida albicans In Vivo Modulates Immune Recognition by Dectin-1", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mohlopheni J.", "last_name"=>"Marakalala", "scopus_author_id"=>"33368147000"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Vautier", "scopus_author_id"=>"37053108500"}, {"first_name"=>"Joanna", "last_name"=>"Potrykus", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602175015"}, {"first_name"=>"Louise A.", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"25825903000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kelly M.", "last_name"=>"Shepardson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55200770700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Hopke", "scopus_author_id"=>"54405645800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hector M.", "last_name"=>"Mora-Montes", "scopus_author_id"=>"8312645000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ann", "last_name"=>"Kerrigan", "scopus_author_id"=>"24073721200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mihai G.", "last_name"=>"Netea", "scopus_author_id"=>"35378641700"}, {"first_name"=>"Graeme I.", "last_name"=>"Murray", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202036452"}, {"first_name"=>"Donna M.", "last_name"=>"MacCallum", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004948578"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Wheeler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202148069"}, {"first_name"=>"Carol A.", "last_name"=>"Munro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102387167"}, {"first_name"=>"Neil A.R.", "last_name"=>"Gow", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004418840"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert A.", "last_name"=>"Cramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102501409"}, {"first_name"=>"Alistair J.P.", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"7408339455"}, {"first_name"=>"Gordon D.", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"35415031300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84876848564", "pmid"=>"23637604", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876848564", "issn"=>"15537366", "pui"=>"368819573", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315"}, "id"=>"ae683744-92c2-38f4-b08a-571ebb6b2b16", "abstract"=>"The beta-glucan receptor Dectin-1 is a member of the C-type lectin family and functions as an innate pattern recognition receptor in antifungal immunity. In both mouse and man, Dectin-1 has been found to play an essential role in controlling infections with Candida albicans, a normally commensal fungus in man which can cause superficial mucocutaneous infections as well as life-threatening invasive diseases. Here, using in vivo models of infection, we show that the requirement for Dectin-1 in the control of systemic Candida albicans infections is fungal strain-specific; a phenotype that only becomes apparent during infection and cannot be recapitulated in vitro. Transcript analysis revealed that this differential requirement for Dectin-1 is due to variable adaptation of C. albicans strains in vivo, and that this results in substantial differences in the composition and nature of their cell walls. In particular, we established that differences in the levels of cell-wall chitin influence the role of Dectin-1, and that these effects can be modulated by antifungal drug treatment. Our results therefore provide substantial new insights into the interaction between C. albicans and the immune system and have significant implications for our understanding of susceptibility and treatment of human infections with this pathogen.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/differential-adaptation-candida-albicans-vivo-modulates-immune-recognition-dectin1", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Turkey"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029106"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Fungal burdens in the kidneys of 129/Sv wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice at day 3 post-infection with various <i>C. albicans</i> strains, as indicated. (<b>B</b>) Characterisation of cytokine levels in the kidneys of 129/Sv wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice at day 3 post-infection of various <i>C. albicans</i> strains, as indicated. Images and quantitation of β-glucan expression on fungal cells isolated from the infected kidneys of C57BL/6 mice at day 9 and stained with (<b>C</b>) anti-β-glucan antibodies or (<b>D</b>) soluble Dectin-1 (FcDectin-1). Control cells were stained with secondary antibody only. Data shown are from a representative experiment. Bar indicates the mean.*; p<0.05. ns, not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dependence"], "article_id"=>686016, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dectin_1_dependence_is_not_related_to_glucan_exposure_in_vivo_/686016", "title"=>"Dectin-1 dependence is not related to β-glucan exposure <i>in vivo.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029104"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Growth of various strains of <i>C. albicans</i> under normoxia or hypoxia, as indicated. (<b>B</b>) Measurement of TNF responses from C57BL/6 wild type versus <i>Clec7A<sup>−/−</sup></i> peritoneal macrophages after stimulation with UV-irradiated <i>C. albicans</i> yeast or hyphae, grown under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, as indicated. (<b>C</b>) Quantitation of β-glucan exposure on UV-irradiated <i>C. albicans</i> hyphae, grown <i>in vitro</i> under conditions of normoxia or hypoxia, as indicated, and stained with soluble Dectin-1. (<b>D</b>) Fold change in <i>FKS</i> gene expression in C. albicans hyphae under normoxic versus hypoxic conditions, as indicated. Data shown (mean ± SD) are from one representative experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dependence", "induced", "hypoxia"], "article_id"=>686014, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dectin_1_responsiveness_but_not_dependence_is_induced_by_hypoxia_in_vitro_/686014", "title"=>"Dectin-1-responsiveness but not dependence is induced by hypoxia <i>in vitro</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029101"], "description"=>"<p>Fungal burdens in the kidneys of 129/Sv wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice at day 9 post-infection with a (<b>A</b>) high or a (<b>B</b>) low dose of various <i>C. albicans</i> strains, as indicated. (<b>C</b>) Characterisation of cytokine levels in the kidneys of 129/Sv wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice at day 9 post-infection with a high dose (as in <b>A</b>) of various <i>C. albicans</i> strains, as indicated. Shown are data from two pooled (<b>A</b>, <b>B</b>) and one representative (<b>C</b>) experiment. Each experiment involved 7–10 mice per group. Bar indicates the mean.*; p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dectin-1", "fungal", "burdens", "dysregulated", "cytokine", "responses", "strains"], "article_id"=>686011, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loss_of_Dectin_1_is_associated_with_increased_fungal_burdens_and_dysregulated_cytokine_responses_with_specific_strains_of_C_albicans_/686011", "title"=>"Loss of Dectin-1 is associated with increased fungal burdens and dysregulated cytokine responses with specific strains of <i>C. albicans</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029109"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Box and whisker graph showing fungal burdens in the kidneys of 129/Sv wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice at day 7 post-infection with ATCC18804, with and without caspofungin treatment, as indicated. (<b>B</b>) Comparative expression analysis of genes encoding selected cell wall associated and secreted proteins, as indicated, on fungal mRNA isolated from the kidneys of 129/Sv mice infected with SC5314 or ATCC18804 at day 7. See also <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315#ppat.1003315.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>. (<b>C</b>) Confocal images and quantitation of chitin levels in fungal cells isolated from the kidneys of 129/Sv mice infected with SC5314 and ATCC18804 at day 7, as indicated. (<b>D</b>) TEM images (left) and quantification of cell wall thickness (right) of fungal cells isolated from the kidneys of 129/Sv mice infected with SC5314 and ATCC18804 at day 7. Scale bar = 50 nm. (<b>E</b>) Confocal images and quantitation of chitin levels of <i>in vitro</i> cultured normal and high chitin SC5314 fungal cells, as indicated. Scale bar = 10 µm. (<b>F</b>) Flow cytometric analysis of exposed β-glucan on low and high-chitin containing <i>in vitro</i> grown <i>C. albicans</i> SC5314, using soluble Dectin-1 as a probe. The filled histograms represent secondary only control and the blue histogram indicates FcDectin-1 staining. (<b>G</b>) Survival analysis of 129/sv Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> or wt mice following infection with 3×10<sup>4</sup> CFU high-chitin or normal-chitin containing <i>C. albicans</i> SC5314. (<b>H</b>) Intraperitoneal inflammation, as measured by neutrophil influx, 4 hr after i.p. infection with 1×10<sup>5</sup> CFU high-chitin or normal-chitin containing <i>C. albicans</i> SC5314 in Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> or wt mice, as indicated. All data shown are from a representative experiment, except for (H) which is pooled data from two experiments. Bar indicates the mean.*; <i>p</i><0.05. ns, not significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dependence", "fungal", "chitin"], "article_id"=>686019, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dectin_1_dependence_in_vivo_is_related_to_changes_in_the_fungal_cell_wall_and_chitin_content_/686019", "title"=>"Dectin-1 dependence <i>in vivo</i> is related to changes in the fungal cell wall and chitin content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029103"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Cell wall biochemical composition of <i>in vitro</i> grown <i>C. albicans</i> SC5314 and ATCC18804 yeast cells, as indicated. (<b>B</b>) Relative binding of fluorescently-labelled live <i>C. albicans</i> yeast cells or zymosan (Zy) to C57BL/6 wild-type and <i>Clec7A<sup>−/−</sup></i> thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, as indicated. (<b>C</b>) Measurement of TNF in culture supernatants from C57BL/6 wild type versus <i>Clec7A<sup>−/−</sup></i> peritoneal macrophages after stimulation with live <i>C. albicans</i> yeast cells or zymosan (Zy), as indicated. (<b>D</b>) Measurement of TNF and IL-6 responses from homozygous Y238X patients after stimulation with <i>C. albicans</i> yeast cells or heat-killed yeast (HK; strain ATCC MYA-3573), as indicated. <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Results</a> were normalized to the treated cells from normal individuals. (<b>E</b>) Measurement of TNF responses from 129S/Sv wild type versus <i>Clec7A<sup>−/−</sup></i> peritoneal macrophages after stimulation with live <i>C. albicans</i> hyphae, as indicated. Data shown are means ± SEM of pooled data from at least two independent experiments, except for (<b>E</b>), which is the mean ± SD of a representative experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dependence", "dectin-1", "cannot", "recapitulated"], "article_id"=>686013, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_dependence_of_Dectin_1_cannot_be_recapitulated_in_vitro_/686013", "title"=>"The dependence of Dectin-1 cannot be recapitulated <i>in vitro.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029099"], "description"=>"<p>Survival analysis of 129/Sv wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice following infection with strains from (<b>A</b>) several different clades of <i>C. albicans</i>, or (<b>B</b>) two additional isolates from clade 1 as indicated. The data shown are representative of at least two independent experiments. Also shown are number of animals per group (n) and dosage used for infection. *; p<0.05. See also <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315#ppat.1003315.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dependence", "clade"], "article_id"=>686009, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dectin_1_dependence_is_not_related_to_the_clade_of_C_albicans_/686009", "title"=>"Dectin-1 dependence is not related to the clade of <i>C. albicans</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029098"], "description"=>"<p>Survival analysis of 129/Sv and C57BL/6 wild-type and Dectin-1<i><sup>−/−</sup></i> mice following infection with (<b>A</b>) <i>C. albicans</i> SC5314 or (<b>B</b>) ATCC18804. The data shown are representative of at least two independent experiments. Also shown are number of animals per group (n) and dosage used for infection. *; p<0.05. See also <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315#ppat.1003315.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "dependence", "fungal"], "article_id"=>686008, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dectin_1_dependence_is_related_to_fungal_strain_and_not_mouse_background_/686008", "title"=>"Dectin-1 dependence is related to fungal strain and not mouse background.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029110", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1029111"], "description"=>"<div><p>The β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 is a member of the C-type lectin family and functions as an innate pattern recognition receptor in antifungal immunity. In both mouse and man, Dectin-1 has been found to play an essential role in controlling infections with <i>Candida albicans</i>, a normally commensal fungus in man which can cause superficial mucocutaneous infections as well as life-threatening invasive diseases. Here, using <i>in vivo</i> models of infection, we show that the requirement for Dectin-1 in the control of systemic <i>Candida albicans</i> infections is fungal strain-specific; a phenotype that only becomes apparent during infection and cannot be recapitulated <i>in vitro</i>. Transcript analysis revealed that this differential requirement for Dectin-1 is due to variable adaptation of <i>C. albicans</i> strains <i>in vivo</i>, and that this results in substantial differences in the composition and nature of their cell walls. In particular, we established that differences in the levels of cell-wall chitin influence the role of Dectin-1, and that these effects can be modulated by antifungal drug treatment. Our results therefore provide substantial new insights into the interaction between <i>C. albicans</i> and the immune system and have significant implications for our understanding of susceptibility and treatment of human infections with this pathogen.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunology", "immunity", "Immunity to infections", "inflammation", "Innate immunity", "Immune cells", "Immune response", "microbiology", "Mycology", "fungi", "yeast", "Host-pathogen interaction", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "pathogenesis", "differential", "adaptation", "vivo", "modulates", "dectin-1"], "article_id"=>686020, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohlopheni J. Marakalala", "Simon Vautier", "Joanna Potrykus", "Louise A. Walker", "Kelly M. Shepardson", "Alex Hopke", "Hector M. Mora-Montes", "Ann Kerrigan", "Mihai G. Netea", "Graeme I. Murray", "Donna M. MacCallum", "Robert Wheeler", "Carol A. Munro", "Neil A. R. Gow", "Robert A. Cramer", "Alistair J. P. Brown", "Gordon D. Brown"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003315.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Differential_Adaptation_of_Candida_albicans_In_Vivo_Modulates_Immune_Recognition_by_Dectin_1/686020", "title"=>"Differential Adaptation of <i>Candida albicans</i> In Vivo Modulates Immune Recognition by Dectin-1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-18 01:40:20"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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