Oral Mycobiome Analysis of HIV-Infected Patients: Identification of Pichia as an Antagonist of Opportunistic Fungi
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{"title"=>"Oral Mycobiome Analysis of HIV-Infected Patients: Identification of Pichia as an Antagonist of Opportunistic Fungi", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Pranab K.", "last_name"=>"Mukherjee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201661793"}, {"first_name"=>"Jyotsna", "last_name"=>"Chandra", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004474544"}, {"first_name"=>"Mauricio", "last_name"=>"Retuerto", "scopus_author_id"=>"55083970100"}, {"first_name"=>"Masoumeh", "last_name"=>"Sikaroodi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506423671"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert E.", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574210357"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Jurevic", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507570442"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert A.", "last_name"=>"Salata", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004523736"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael M.", "last_name"=>"Lederman", "scopus_author_id"=>"35227594000"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick M.", "last_name"=>"Gillevet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603773928"}, {"first_name"=>"Mahmoud A.", "last_name"=>"Ghannoum", "scopus_author_id"=>"35379746400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372738338", "issn"=>"15537374", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897392010", "pmid"=>"24626467", "sgr"=>"84897392010"}, "id"=>"732d7539-b133-3898-9e6f-9ee9bff2de49", "abstract"=>"Oral microbiota contribute to health and disease, and their disruption may influence the course of oral diseases. Here, we used pyrosequencing to characterize the oral bacteriome and mycobiome of 12 HIV-infected patients and matched 12 uninfected controls. The number of bacterial and fungal genera in individuals ranged between 8-14 and 1-9, among uninfected and HIV-infected participants, respectively. The core oral bacteriome (COB) comprised 14 genera, of which 13 were common between the two groups. In contrast, the core oral mycobiome (COM) differed between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, with Candida being the predominant fungus in both groups. Among Candida species, C. albicans was the most common (58% in uninfected and 83% in HIV-infected participants). Furthermore, 15 and 12 bacteria-fungi pairs were correlated significantly within uninfected and HIV-infected groups, respectively. Increase in Candida colonization was associated with a concomitant decrease in the abundance of Pichia, suggesting antagonism. We found that Pichia spent medium (PSM) inhibited growth of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium. Moreover, Pichia cells and PSM inhibited Candida biofilms (P = .002 and .02, respectively, compared to untreated controls). The mechanism by which Pichia inhibited Candida involved nutrient limitation, and modulation of growth and virulence factors. Finally, in an experimental murine model of oral candidiasis, we demonstrated that mice treated with PSM exhibited significantly lower infection score (P = .011) and fungal burden (P = .04) compared to untreated mice. Moreover, tongues of PSM-treated mice had few hyphae and intact epithelium, while vehicle- and nystatin-treated mice exhibited extensive fungal invasion of tissue with epithelial disruption. These results showed that PSM was efficacious against oral candidiasis in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory activity of PSM was associated with secretory protein/s. Our findings provide the first evidence of interaction among members of the oral mycobiota, and identifies a potential novel antifungal.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oral-mycobiome-analysis-hivinfected-patients-identification-pichia-antagonist-opportunistic-fungi", "reader_count"=>114, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>55}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "China"=>1, "Denmark"=>2, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419829"], "description"=>"<p>Assessment of oral candidiasis in mice infected with <i>Candida</i> was performed by (A) clinical score and (B) tongue fungal burden. (A) Median clinical scores of oral candidiasis in mice after treatment with PSM and nystatin. (B) Box-plot of tissue fungal burden (log CFUs/g) in different groups of mice infected with <i>Candida</i> (<i>P</i>-values, compared to PSM treatment). Histology analyses of tissue section of tongue from mouse infected with <i>Candida</i>, followed by (C) no treatment or treated with (D) vehicle control, (E) nystatin, or (F) PSM. Arrows – fungal hyphae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "spent", "murine", "morel"], "article_id"=>961741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Efficacy_of_Pichia_spent_medium_PSM_in_an_experimental_murine_morel_of_oral_candidiasis_/961741", "title"=>"Efficacy of <i>Pichia</i> spent medium (PSM) in an experimental murine morel of oral candidiasis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419828"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Metabolic activity of <i>Candida</i> biofilms exposed to metabolites extracted from spent media of Pichia, Penicillium, or media control. (B) Effect of PSM exposed to proteinase, heat, or alkali on <i>Candida</i> biofilms. Confocal images show architecture of <i>Candida</i> biofilms exposed to (C) no PSM (control), (D) untreated PSM, (E) proteinase-K treated PSM, (F) heat, or (G) alkali.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "characterization", "pichia", "spent"], "article_id"=>961740, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biochemical_characterization_of_Pichia_spent_medium_/961740", "title"=>"Biochemical characterization of Pichia spent medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419823"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relative abundance of <i>Pichia</i> and <i>Candida</i> in uninfected individuals. (B) Effect of PSM on growth of <i>Candida</i> was determined by measuring optical density (OD). Effect of PSM on (C) <i>Aspergillus</i>, and (D) <i>Fusarium</i> was determined by measuring dry weight of fungi. <i>Pichia</i> spent (“conditioned”) medium (PSM) was obtained by centrifuging 100-mL culture of <i>Pichia</i> grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases"], "article_id"=>961735, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antagonistic_relation_between_Pichia_and_other_fungi_/961735", "title"=>"Antagonistic relation between <i>Pichia</i> and other fungi.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419824"], "description"=>"<p><i>Pichia farinosa</i> was mixed with GFP-tagged <i>C. albicans</i> strain at 10<sup>3</sup> cells each in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) growth medium and incubated at 37°C for 54 h. Growth of Candida cells was monitored by phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Panels A, D, G: phase-contrast images of <i>Candida</i> alone, <i>Candida</i>+<i>Pichia</i>, and <i>Pichia</i> alone, respectively. Panels B, E: fluorescence images of <i>Candida</i> alone and <i>Candida</i>+<i>Pichia</i> mixture. Panels C, F: Composite figures with phase-contrast images merged with fluorescence image, for <i>Candida</i> only and <i>Candida</i>+<i>Pichia</i> mixture of cells. Panel H: quantitative measurement of fluorescence (excitation and emission wavelength = 485 and 435 nm, respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "overgrows"], "article_id"=>961736, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pichia_overgrows_Candida_in_mixed_cultures_/961736", "title"=>"<i>Pichia</i> overgrows <i>Candida</i> in mixed cultures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419822"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation of bacteriome and mycobiome was determined for (A) uninfected and (B) HIV-infected study participants using R statistical computing software (Spearman's correlation and two-tailed probability of <i>t</i> for each correlation) for the two groups. Interactions among different fungi in the mycobiome of (C) uninfected and (D) HIV-infected study participants was also determined using similar approach. Red: Positive correlation; Blue: negative correlation; diameter of circles represent the absolute value of correlation for each pair of the microbe-microbe matrix.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "coefficients", "abundance", "microbes", "uninfected", "hiv-infected"], "article_id"=>961734, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_coefficients_of_abundance_of_microbes_in_uninfected_and_HIV_infected_patients_/961734", "title"=>"Correlation coefficients of abundance of microbes in uninfected and HIV-infected patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419833"], "description"=>"<p>For correlation analysis, microbiome abundance data was divided into independent data matrices (disease and no disease) and correlation analyses was conducted using the “psych” package (corr.test function) in R statistical platform (pairwise Spearman's correlation and two-tailed probability of <i>t</i> for each correlation) <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996#ppat.1003996-R1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996#ppat.1003996-Revelle1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "bacteriome", "mycobiome", "uninfected", "hiv-infected"], "article_id"=>961745, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_bacteriome_and_mycobiome_in_uninfected_and_HIV_infected_study_participants_/961745", "title"=>"Correlation between bacteriome and mycobiome in uninfected and HIV-infected study participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419831"], "description"=>"§<p>Gender: M – Male, F – Female.</p><p>*Self-reported ethnicity: W = White; H = Hispanic; C = Caucasian; AA = African-American.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases"], "article_id"=>961743, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_information_of_study_participants_/961743", "title"=>"Demographic information of study participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419832"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation among oral fungi in uninfected study participants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "fungi", "uninfected"], "article_id"=>961744, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_among_oral_fungi_in_uninfected_study_participants_/961744", "title"=>"Correlation among oral fungi in uninfected study participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419830"], "description"=>"1<p>Absent: fungi that were not detected in samples with <i>Pichia</i>.</p>2<p>Co-colonizers: fungi detected in samples where <i>Pichia</i> was present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "fungi", "uninfected"], "article_id"=>961742, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_Pichia_and_other_fungi_in_oral_wash_of_uninfected_patients_/961742", "title"=>"Relationship between <i>Pichia</i> and other fungi in oral wash of uninfected patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419827"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of undiluted and diluted (50%) PSM on (A) metabolic activity and (B) thickness of <i>Candida</i> biofilms was assessed. (C) Germination in <i>Candida</i> grown in SDB, exposed to fetal bovine serum, (D) Stunted germ tubes formed by <i>Candida</i> exposed to <i>Pichia</i> supernatant (Magnification 20X), (E) Effect of PSM on the ability of <i>Candida</i> (grown in SDB) to adhere to solid substrates. (SDB - Sabouraud dextrose broth.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "germination"], "article_id"=>961739, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_dependent_activity_of_PSM_and_its_effect_on_Candida_germination_and_adhesion_/961739", "title"=>"Dose dependent activity of PSM, and its effect on <i>Candida</i> germination and adhesion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419826"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Effect of <i>Pichia</i> cells on the ability of <i>Candida</i> to form biofilms. <i>Candida</i> and <i>Pichia</i> were co-incubated [<i>Candida</i>∶<i>Pichia</i> (C∶P) = 3∶1, 1∶1, or 1∶3] and biofilm formation was monitored (*<i>P</i>≤.002, compared to <i>Candida</i> or <i>Pichia</i> controls). (B) Effect of media supernatant obtained from <i>Pichia, Penicillium, or Cladosporium</i> on <i>Candida</i> biofilms. Mean ± SD of ≥3 separate experiments. (C–E) Confocal microscopy images of <i>Candida</i> biofilms formed in presence of (C) no media supernatant, (D) <i>Penicillium</i> supernatant or (E) <i>Pichia</i> supernatant. (F) Thickness of biofilms formed in presence of media supernatant of <i>Pichia</i> or <i>Penicillium</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "spent", "fungal"], "article_id"=>961738, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>51, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activity_of_Pichia_spent_medium_PSM_against_fungal_biofilms_/961738", "title"=>"Activity of <i>Pichia</i> spent medium (PSM) against fungal biofilms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419820"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relative abundance of fungi in uninfected and HIV-infected patients (N = 12 for each group), (B) Fungi present in the core oral mycobiome of uninfected and HIV-infected individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "microbiome", "hiv-infected", "patients", "uninfected"], "article_id"=>961733, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>67, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fungal_microbiome_mycobiome_of_HIV_infected_patients_and_uninfected_individuals_/961733", "title"=>"Fungal microbiome (mycobiome) of HIV-infected patients and uninfected individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419818"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relative abundance bacteria in uninfected and HIV-infected patients (N = 11 for each group), (B) Bacteria present in the core oral bacteriome of uninfected and HIV-infected individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "microbiome", "hiv-infected", "patients", "uninfected"], "article_id"=>961732, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_microbiome_bacteriome_of_HIV_infected_patients_and_uninfected_individuals_/961732", "title"=>"Bacterial microbiome (bacteriome) of HIV-infected patients and uninfected individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419834", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419835", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1419836"], "description"=>"<div><p>Oral microbiota contribute to health and disease, and their disruption may influence the course of oral diseases. Here, we used pyrosequencing to characterize the oral bacteriome and mycobiome of 12 HIV-infected patients and matched 12 uninfected controls. The number of bacterial and fungal genera in individuals ranged between 8–14 and 1–9, among uninfected and HIV-infected participants, respectively. The core oral bacteriome (COB) comprised 14 genera, of which 13 were common between the two groups. In contrast, the core oral mycobiome (COM) differed between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, with <i>Candida</i> being the predominant fungus in both groups. Among <i>Candida</i> species, <i>C. albicans</i> was the most common (58% in uninfected and 83% in HIV-infected participants). Furthermore, 15 and 12 bacteria-fungi pairs were correlated significantly within uninfected and HIV-infected groups, respectively. Increase in <i>Candida</i> colonization was associated with a concomitant decrease in the abundance of <i>Pichia</i>, suggesting antagonism. We found that <i>Pichia</i> spent medium (PSM) inhibited growth of <i>Candida</i>, <i>Aspergillus</i> and <i>Fusarium</i>. Moreover, <i>Pichia</i> cells and PSM inhibited <i>Candida</i> biofilms (<i>P</i> = .002 and .02, respectively, compared to untreated controls). The mechanism by which <i>Pichia</i> inhibited <i>Candida</i> involved nutrient limitation, and modulation of growth and virulence factors. Finally, in an experimental murine model of oral candidiasis, we demonstrated that mice treated with PSM exhibited significantly lower infection score (<i>P</i> = .011) and fungal burden (<i>P</i> = .04) compared to untreated mice. Moreover, tongues of PSM-treated mice had few hyphae and intact epithelium, while vehicle- and nystatin-treated mice exhibited extensive fungal invasion of tissue with epithelial disruption. These results showed that PSM was efficacious against oral candidiasis <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. The inhibitory activity of PSM was associated with secretory protein/s. Our findings provide the first evidence of interaction among members of the oral mycobiota, and identifies a potential novel antifungal.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Medical microbiology", "Mycology", "Infectious diseases", "Fungal diseases", "mycobiome", "hiv-infected", "antagonist", "opportunistic", "fungi"], "article_id"=>961746, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Pranab K. Mukherjee", "Jyotsna Chandra", "Mauricio Retuerto", "Masoumeh Sikaroodi", "Robert E. Brown", "Richard Jurevic", "Robert A. Salata", "Michael M. Lederman", "Patrick M. Gillevet", "Mahmoud A. Ghannoum"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003996.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Oral_Mycobiome_Analysis_of_HIV_Infected_Patients_Identification_of_Pichia_as_an_Antagonist_of_Opportunistic_Fungi/961746", "title"=>"Oral Mycobiome Analysis of HIV-Infected Patients: Identification of <i>Pichia</i> as an Antagonist of Opportunistic Fungi", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-03-13 10:21:26"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"58", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"33", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"45", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"27", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
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