Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine
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{"title"=>"Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mohamed M.", "last_name"=>"Ali", "scopus_author_id"=>"55470910600"}, {"first_name"=>"David L.", "last_name"=>"Newsom", "scopus_author_id"=>"16313549000"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan F.", "last_name"=>"González", "scopus_author_id"=>"56237625500"}, {"first_name"=>"Anice", "last_name"=>"Sabag-Daigle", "scopus_author_id"=>"55062159900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Stahl", "scopus_author_id"=>"56236922600"}, {"first_name"=>"Brandi", "last_name"=>"Steidley", "scopus_author_id"=>"55220044800"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith", "last_name"=>"Dubena", "scopus_author_id"=>"56236774600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica L.", "last_name"=>"Dyszel", "scopus_author_id"=>"15834367400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jenee N.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410177994"}, {"first_name"=>"Yakhya", "last_name"=>"Dieye", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508166408"}, {"first_name"=>"Razvan", "last_name"=>"Arsenescu", "scopus_author_id"=>"11540103500"}, {"first_name"=>"Prosper N.", "last_name"=>"Boyaka", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603782153"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven", "last_name"=>"Krakowka", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005087807"}, {"first_name"=>"Tony", "last_name"=>"Romeo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004909115"}, {"first_name"=>"Edward J.", "last_name"=>"Behrman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003489808"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"White", "scopus_author_id"=>"55574188854"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian M.M.", "last_name"=>"Ahmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603400069"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373412690", "sgr"=>"84903447863", "issn"=>"15537374", "pmid"=>"24967579", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903447863", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"9aa5d470-6f48-3d6f-b7dd-d6ee7490b6fc", "abstract"=>"Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fructoseasparagine-primary-nutrient-during-growth-salmonella-inflamed-intestine", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Sudan"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568803"], "description"=>"<p>Germ-free C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group was colonized with 10<sup>7</sup> cfu of <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i> via the intragastric route (i.g.) and one group was not. One day later both groups were challenged i.g. with 10<sup>7</sup> cfu of <i>Salmonella</i>. After 24 hours, the cecum and spleen were homogenized and plated to enumerate <i>Salmonella</i>. Each point represents the CFU/g recovered from one mouse with the geometric mean shown by a horizontal line. Statistical significance between select groups was determined by using an unpaired two-tailed Student <i>t</i> test. ** = P value<0.01, *** = P value<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "mice", "serovar", "typhimurium", "14028"], "article_id"=>1085726, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protection_of_mice_against_Salmonella_serovar_Typhimurium_strain_14028_by_Enterobacter_cloacae_strain_JLD400_/1085726", "title"=>"Protection of mice against <i>Salmonella</i> serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 by <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i> strain JLD400.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568805"], "description"=>"<p>A) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type MA43 and <i>sirA</i> mutant MA45 in germ-free mice, via the intragastric route (i.g.) and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. B) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type MA43 vs <i>sirA</i> mutant MA45 in germ-free mice mono-associated with <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i>, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. Each point represents the CI from one mouse with the median shown by a horizontal line. Statistical significance of each group being different than 1 was determined by using a one sample Student's <i>t</i> test. Statistical significance between groups was determined using a Mann-Whitney test. * = P value<0.05, *** = P value<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "mutant"], "article_id"=>1085728, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Competitive_index_CI_measurements_of_a_sirA_mutant_in_mouse_models_/1085728", "title"=>"Competitive index (CI) measurements of a <i>sirA</i> mutant in mouse models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568810"], "description"=>"<p>The five genes of the <i>fra</i> locus are shown as grey arrows. The <i>gor</i> and <i>treF</i> genes are shown as black arrows and are conserved throughout the <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> while the <i>fra</i> locus is not, suggesting that the <i>fra</i> locus was horizontally acquired. The proposed functions and names of each gene are shown below and above the arrows, respectively. The names are based upon the distantly related <i>frl</i> locus of <i>E. coli</i>. For example, the deglycase enzyme of the <i>frl</i> locus is encoded by <i>frlB</i> so we have named the putative deglycase of the <i>fra</i> locus, <i>fraB</i>. The <i>fra</i> locus has no <i>frlC</i> homolog, while the <i>frl</i> locus does not have an asparaginase. Therefore, the name <i>fraC</i> was not used and the asparaginase was named <i>fraE</i>. The locus tags using the <i>Salmonella</i> nomenclature for strains 14028 (STM14 numbers) and LT2 (STM numbers) are shown above the gene names.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "locus"], "article_id"=>1085730, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_fra_locus_of_Salmonella_enterica_/1085730", "title"=>"Map of the <i>fra</i> locus of <i>Salmonella enterica</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568815"], "description"=>"<p>A) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice, via the intragastric route (i.g.) and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. B) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in germ-free C57BL/6 mice mono-associated with <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i>, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. C) 10<sup>9</sup> wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in C57BL/6 conventional mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. D) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type IR715 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in streptomycin-treated (ST) C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. E) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type IR715 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 4 days. F) Complementation of the <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutation with a plasmid encoding the entire <i>fra</i> island, pASD5006. 10<sup>7</sup> ASD6090 and ASD6000 in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 4 days. G) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type IR715 and <i>fraB4</i>::kan mutant CS1032 in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. H) 10<sup>7</sup> wild-type IR715 and <i>fraB4</i>::kan mutant CS1032 in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 4 days. I) Complementation of the <i>fraB4</i>::kan mutation with a plasmid encoding the entire <i>fra</i> island, pASD5006.10<sup>7</sup> wild-type ASD6090 and <i>fraB4</i>::kan mutant ASD6040 in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 4 days. J) 10<sup>7 </sup><i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4301 and <i>fraB1</i>::cam mutant MA5900, both strains are a SPI1<sup>−</sup> SPI2<sup>−</sup> background, in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. K) 10<sup>7 </sup><i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4301 and <i>fraB1</i>::cam mutant MA5900, both strains are a SPI1<sup>−</sup> SPI2<sup>−</sup> background, in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 4 days. L) 10<sup>7 </sup><i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4301 vs <i>fraB1</i>::cam mutant MA5900, both strains in a SPI1<sup>−</sup> SPI2<sup>−</sup> background, in germ-free C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. M) 10<sup>7 </sup><i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4310 vs <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA5910, both strains are a <i>ttrA</i><sup>−</sup> background, in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. N) 10<sup>7 </sup><i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4310 vs <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA5910, both strains are a <i>ttrA</i><sup>−</sup> background, in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 4 days. O) 10<sup>7 </sup><i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4310 vs <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA5910, both strains are a <i>ttrA</i><sup>−</sup> background, in germ-free C57BL/6 mice, via the i.g. route and recovered from the cecum after 24 hours. P) 10<sup>4</sup> wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in conventional C57BL/6 mice, via the intraperitoneal route (i.p.) and recovered from the spleen after 24 hours. Q) 10<sup>4</sup> wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in streptomycin-treated C57BL/6 mice, via the i.p. route and recovered from the spleen after 24 hours. Each data point represents the CI from one mouse with the median shown by a horizontal line. Statistical significance of each group being different than 1 was determined by using a one sample Student's <i>t</i> test. Statistical significance between select groups was determined using a Mann-Whitney test. * = P value<0.05, ** = P value<0.01, *** = P value<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "defect", "mutant", "backgrounds"], "article_id"=>1085735, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fitness_defect_of_a_fraB1_kan_mutant_as_measured_by_competitive_index_CI_in_various_genetic_backgrounds_and_mouse_models_/1085735", "title"=>"Fitness defect of a <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant as measured by competitive index (CI) in various genetic backgrounds and mouse models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568848"], "description"=>"<p>All groups received 10<sup>7</sup> cfu except conventional mice (D), which received 10<sup>9</sup> cfu. A) Germ-free (GF) mice 24 hours post-infection with wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59; B) GF mice 24 hours post-infection with SPI1<sup>−</sup> SPI2<sup>− </sup><i>Salmon</i>ella (<i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4301 vs <i>fraB1</i>::cam mutant MA5900); C) GF mice 24 hours post-infection with <i>ttrA</i><sup>− </sup><i>Salmonella</i> (<i>fra<sup>+</sup></i> MA4310 vs <i>fraB1::ka</i>n mutant MA5910); D) Conventional mice 24 hours post-infection with wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59. E) Strep-treated (ST) mice 4 days post-infection with wild-type IR715 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59; F) ST mice 4 days post-infection with SPI1<sup>−</sup> SPI2<sup>− </sup><i>Salmonella</i> (<i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4301 and <i>fraB1</i>::cam mutant MA5900; G) ST mice 4 days post-infection with <i>ttrA</i><sup>− </sup><i>Salmonella</i> (<i>fra</i><sup>+</sup> MA4310 vs <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA5910). Error bars represent mean+SD. Statistical significance between select groups was determined using a Mann-Whitney test. * = P value<0.05, ** = P value<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "scores", "mice", "inoculation"], "article_id"=>1085768, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histopathology_scores_of_C57BL_6_mice_after_i_g_inoculation_with_Salmonella_/1085768", "title"=>"Histopathology scores of C57BL/6 mice after i.g. inoculation with <i>Salmonella</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568849"], "description"=>"<p>10<sup>9</sup> wild-type IR715 vs <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 in “humanized” Swiss Webster mice (germ free mice inoculated orally with a human fecal sample), or C57BL/6 IL10 knockout mice, as indicated, via the i.g. route and recovered from cecum on day 3 post-infection. A) Each data point represents the CI from one mouse with the median shown by a horizontal line. Statistical significance of each group being different than 1 was determined by using a one sample Student's <i>t</i> test. *** = P value<0.001. B) Histopathology scores of mice from panel A. Error bars represent mean+SD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "mutant", "cecum", "il10", "knockout"], "article_id"=>1085769, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phenotype_of_a_fraB1_kan_mutant_in_the_cecum_of_humanized_and_IL10_knockout_mice_/1085769", "title"=>"Phenotype of a <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant in the cecum of “humanized” and IL10 knockout mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568852"], "description"=>"<p>Groups of five C57BL/6 mice heterozygous for <i>Nramp1</i> were orally inoculated with 10<sup>7</sup> CFU of IR715 (wild-type), MA59 (<i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant), or ASD6000 (<i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant with complementation plasmid pASD5006). The geometric mean+SE is shown. Statistical significance between select groups was determined by using an unpaired two-tailed Student <i>t</i> test. * = P value<0.05, ** = P value<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "feces", "days", "cecum"], "article_id"=>1085772, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitation_of_Salmonella_in_feces_on_days_1_through_4_and_cecum_on_day_4_post_infection_/1085772", "title"=>"Quantitation of <i>Salmonella</i> in feces on days 1 through 4, and cecum on day 4, post-infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568854"], "description"=>"<p>Growth of wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 on F-Asn (A), F-Arg (B), F-Lys (C), asparagine, arginine, lysine, or glucose (D). Bacteria were grown overnight in LB at 37°C shaking, centrifuged, resuspended in water, and subcultured 1∶1000 into NCE medium containing the indicated carbon source at 5 mM. The optical density at 600 nm was then read at time points during growth at 37°C with shaking. Controls included NCE with no carbon source, and NCE with glucose that was not inoculated, as a sterility control (D). E) Complementation of a <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutation with plasmid pASD5006 encoding the <i>fra</i> island (ASD6000) or the vector control, pWSK29 (ASD6010). Each point in (A)–(E) represents the mean of three cultures with error bars indicating standard deviation. F) The structure of F-Asn (CAS#34393-27-6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "wild-type", "mutant", "amadori"], "article_id"=>1085774, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_wild_type_and_fraB1_kan_mutant_Salmonella_on_Amadori_products_/1085774", "title"=>"Growth of wild-type and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant <i>Salmonella</i> on Amadori products.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568856"], "description"=>"<p>Growth of wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 on F-Asn. Bacteria were grown overnight in LB at 37°C shaking, centrifuged, resuspended in water, and subcultured 1∶1000 into NCE medium lacking a nitrogen source (NCE-N) but containing the indicated carbon source at 5 mM. The optical density at 600 nm was then read at time points during growth at 37°C with shaking. Controls included NCE-N with no carbon source, NCE-N with 5 mM glucose, and NCE-N with glucose that was not inoculated, as a sterility control. Each point represents the mean of four cultures and error bars represent standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "f-asn", "nitrogen"], "article_id"=>1085776, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_Salmonella_on_F_Asn_as_sole_nitrogen_source_/1085776", "title"=>"Growth of <i>Salmonella</i> on F-Asn as sole nitrogen source.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568857"], "description"=>"<p>Growth of wild-type MA43 and <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant MA59 on 5 mM F-Asn or 5 mM glucose anaerobically (A and B) or aerobically (C and D) in the presence (A and C) or absence (B and D) of 40 mM tetrathionate (S<sub>4</sub>0<sub>6</sub><sup>2−</sup>). Bacteria were grown overnight in LB at 37°C shaking, centrifuged, resuspended in water, and subcultured 1∶1000 into NCE medium containing the indicated carbon source. The optical density at 600 nm was then read at time points during growth at 37°C with shaking. Each point represents the mean of four cultures with error bars indicating standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "f-asn", "tetrathionate"], "article_id"=>1085777, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_Salmonella_on_F_Asn_in_the_presence_or_absence_of_tetrathionate_or_oxygen_/1085777", "title"=>"Growth of <i>Salmonella</i> on F-Asn in the presence or absence of tetrathionate or oxygen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568859"], "description"=>"<p>Cultures were grown overnight in LB, pelleted and washed in water, subcultured 1∶10,000 and grown for 24 hours at 37°C in NCE minimal medium containing 5 mM F-Asn, aerobically or anaerobically, in the presence or absence of tetrathionate (S<sub>4</sub>O<sub>6</sub><sup>2−</sup>), as indicated. A) Anaerobic growth in the presence of tetrathionate, B) anaerobic growth in the absence of tetrathionate, C) aerobic growth in the presence of tetrathionate, D) aerobic growth in the absence of tetrathionate. Each data point represents the CI from one culture with the median shown by a horizontal line. Statistical significance of each group being different than 1 was determined by using a one sample Student's <i>t</i> test. Statistical significance between select groups was determined using a Mann-Whitney test. ** = P value<0.01, *** = P value<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "mutant"], "article_id"=>1085779, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Competitive_index_measurements_of_a_fraB1_kan_mutant_during_in_vitro_growth_/1085779", "title"=>"Competitive index measurements of a <i>fraB1</i>::kan mutant during <i>in vitro</i> growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568861"], "description"=>"<p>A proteomic survey of subcellular fractions of <i>Salmonella</i> previously identified FraB (the deglycase) as cytoplasmic and FraE (the asparaginase) as periplasmic <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209#ppat.1004209-Brown1\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a>. Therefore, it is possible that F-Asn is converted to F-Asp in the periplasm by the asparaginase and that the transporter and kinase actually use F-Asp as substrate rather than F-Asn. The FraD kinase of <i>Salmonella</i> shares 30% amino acid identity with the FrlD kinase of <i>E. coli</i>. FrlD phosphorylates F-Lys to form F-Lys-6-P <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209#ppat.1004209-Wiame2\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>. Therefore, we hypothesize that FraD phosphorylates F-Asp to form F-Asp-6-P. The FrlB deglycase of <i>E. coli</i> shares 28% amino acid identity with FraB of <i>Salmonella</i>. The FrlB deglycase converts F-Lys-6-P to lysine and glucose-6-P <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209#ppat.1004209-Wiame2\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>, so we hypothesize that FraB of <i>Salmonella</i> converts F-Asp-6-P to aspartate and glucose-6-P.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "fra", "localization"], "article_id"=>1085781, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.g012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_proposed_model_of_Fra_protein_localization_and_functions_/1085781", "title"=>"A proposed model of Fra protein localization and functions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568862"], "description"=>"<p>Oligonucleotides used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions"], "article_id"=>1085782, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oligonucleotides_used_/1085782", "title"=>"Oligonucleotides used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568863"], "description"=>"<p>Bacterial strains and plasmids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "strains"], "article_id"=>1085783, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_strains_and_plasmids_/1085783", "title"=>"Bacterial strains and plasmids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568864"], "description"=>"a<p>The locus tag is from the <i>Salmonella</i> serovar Typhimurium strain 14028s genome (accession number NC_016856.1)</p>b<p>The log2 hybridization intensity of this locus after recovery of the <i>Salmonella</i> library from germ-free mice.</p>c<p>The log2 hybridization intensity of this locus after recovery of the <i>Salmonella</i> library from germ-free mice that had been previously monoassociated with <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i>.</p>d<p>The difference in log2 hybridization intensity of this locus between <i>Enterobacter</i> monoassociated mice and germ-free mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "differentially", "germ-free", "mice", "ex-germ-free", "monoassociated"], "article_id"=>1085784, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_that_are_differentially_required_in_germ_free_mice_and_ex_germ_free_mice_monoassociated_with_Enterobacter_cloacae_/1085784", "title"=>"Genes that are differentially required in germ-free mice and ex-germ-free mice monoassociated with <i>Enterobacter cloacae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1568865"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Typhimurium (<i>Salmonella</i>) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that <i>Salmonella</i> encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for <i>Salmonella</i> fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10<sup>−/−</sup> mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, <i>fra</i>, provides an advantage only if <i>Salmonella</i> can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the <i>fra</i> phenotype is lost in <i>Salmonella</i> SPI1<sup>−</sup> SPI2<sup>−</sup> or <i>ttrA</i> mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a <i>Salmonella fra</i> mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by <i>Salmonella</i> in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Species interactions", "fructose-asparagine", "inflamed", "intestine"], "article_id"=>1085785, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed M. Ali", "David L. Newsom", "Juan F. González", "Anice Sabag-Daigle", "Christopher Stahl", "Brandi Steidley", "Judith Dubena", "Jessica L. Dyszel", "Jenee N. Smith", "Yakhya Dieye", "Razvan Arsenescu", "Prosper N. Boyaka", "Steven Krakowka", "Tony Romeo", "Edward J. Behrman", "Peter White", "Brian M. M. Ahmer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004209"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Fructose_Asparagine_Is_a_Primary_Nutrient_during_Growth_of_Salmonella_in_the_Inflamed_Intestine/1085785", "title"=>"Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of <i>Salmonella</i> in the Inflamed Intestine", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-26 03:22:20"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"221", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[306, 482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[293]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[317]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[287]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}]}

F1000Prime | Further Information

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