Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity
Publication Date
July 17, 2014
Journal
PLOS Pathogens
Authors
Aris Katzourakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Aaron G. Lim, Sunetra Gupta, et al
Volume
10
Issue
7
Pages
e1004214
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1004214
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033295
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4102558
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25033295
Web of Science
000340551000013
Scopus
84905387698
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/larger-mammalian-body-size-leads-lower-retroviral-activity
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599180"], "description"=>"<p>Correlations of number of ERVs against body mass (both log-transformed) by ERV class.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "ervs", "erv"], "article_id"=>1109161, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_of_number_of_ERVs_against_body_mass_both_log_transformed_by_ERV_class_/1109161", "title"=>"Correlations of number of ERVs against body mass (both log-transformed) by ERV class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599179"], "description"=>"<p>(b) Correlation between mean age of all ERV integrations and body mass from the genomes of 38 mammals. Body mass is log-transformed, and the mean ages are calculated correcting for the substitution rate. We have not taken into account the effect of body size on substitution rate in calculating the ages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "erv", "integrations", "acquired", "10"], "article_id"=>1109160, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_a_Correlation_between_ERV_count_and_body_mass_for_the_number_of_ERV_integrations_acquired_over_the_last_10_my_/1109160", "title"=>"(a) Correlation between ERV count and body mass for the number of ERV integrations acquired over the last 10 my.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599177"], "description"=>"<p>Body mass is log-transformed, and the mean ages are calculated correcting for the substitution rate (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.68, P<0.001). (b, c, d) The relationship between ERV count and body mass for the number of ERV integrations acquired over the last 10 my, between 10–35 mya and >35 mya in the genomes of 38 mammals (both values log-transformed). The trend lines representing the slope for the regression, corrected for phylogenetic non-independence, and accompanying P-values are plotted. We have taken into account the effect of body size on substitution rate in calculating the ages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "erv", "integrations", "genomes", "38"], "article_id"=>1109158, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_a_Correlation_between_mean_age_of_all_ERV_integrations_and_body_mass_from_the_genomes_of_38_mammals_/1109158", "title"=>"(a) Correlation between mean age of all ERV integrations and body mass from the genomes of 38 mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599191"], "description"=>"1<p>Body mass data from Canis lupus, Felis silvestris and Vicugna vicugna used for C. familiaris, F. catus and V. pacos respectively</p>2<p>Age of ERVs estimated using distance from their nearest neighbour with a substitution rate of 2.2×10<sup>∧</sup>9 substitutions per site per year and a Jukes-Cantor correction for multiple hits </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "ancestral", "erv", "integrations", "genome"], "article_id"=>1109172, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reconstructed_ancestral_body_mass_and_number_of_ERV_integrations_in_genome_sequences_/1109172", "title"=>"Reconstructed ancestral body mass and number of ERV integrations in genome sequences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599187"], "description"=>"<p>At high rates of horizontal transmission (<i>λ</i>), the proportion of infected individuals reaches a plateau for increasing body sizes. Moreover, in this case, for larger body sizes, there is a greater proportion of exogenous retrovirus infections than there are endogenous ones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "horizontal", "rates"], "article_id"=>1109168, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_body_size_B_for_different_horizontal_transmission_rates_955_on_the_structure_of_the_population_at_equilibrium_/1109168", "title"=>"The effect of body size (B) for different horizontal transmission rates (<i>λ</i>) on the structure of the population at equilibrium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599182"], "description"=>"<p>Age distribution of ERVs by class.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "ervs"], "article_id"=>1109163, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_distribution_of_ERVs_by_class_/1109163", "title"=>"Age distribution of ERVs by class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599196", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599197", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599198"], "description"=>"<div><p>Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "mammalian", "leads", "retroviral"], "article_id"=>1109175, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Larger_Mammalian_Body_Size_Leads_to_Lower_Retroviral_Activity_/1109175", "title"=>"Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1599188"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenetically corrected correlations of number of ERVs per genome acquired over the last 10(log) against life history traits (LHT) confounders.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Microbial evolution", "Viral evolution", "Evolutionary genetics", "evolutionary theory", "microbiology", "Virology", "Viruses and cancer", "corrected", "correlations", "ervs", "genome", "acquired"], "article_id"=>1109170, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Gkikas Magiorkinis", "Aaron G. Lim", "Sunetra Gupta", "Robert Belshaw", "Robert Gifford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004214.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetically_corrected_correlations_of_number_of_ERVs_per_genome_acquired_over_the_last_10_log_against_life_history_traits_LHT_confounders_/1109170", "title"=>"Phylogenetically corrected correlations of number of ERVs per genome acquired over the last 10(log) against life history traits (LHT) confounders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-17 03:46:54"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Computational biology", "average_usage"=>[341, 529]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[317]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[280]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[287]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}]}
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