Coordinated Bacteriocin Expression and Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes to Genetic Adaptation through Neighbor Predation
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{"title"=>"Coordinated Bacteriocin Expression and Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes to Genetic Adaptation through Neighbor Predation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wei Yun", "last_name"=>"Wholey", "scopus_author_id"=>"24173588800"}, {"first_name"=>"Travis J.", "last_name"=>"Kochan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57150831900"}, {"first_name"=>"David N.", "last_name"=>"Storck", "scopus_author_id"=>"57150673000"}, {"first_name"=>"Suzanne", "last_name"=>"Dawid", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507472860"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84959483339", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413", "pui"=>"608823287", "pmid"=>"26840124", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84959483339", "issn"=>"15537374", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\r1553-7366 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f0abf8e8-f7c2-33e6-a61f-680017f9a3c7", "abstract"=>"Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has remained a persistent cause of invasive and mucosal disease in humans despite the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines. The resilience of this organism is due to its capacity for adaptation through the uptake and incorporation of new genetic material from the surrounding microbial community. DNA uptake and recombination is controlled by a tightly regulated quorum sensing system that is triggered by the extracellular accumulation of competence stimulating peptide (CSP). In this study, we demonstrate that CSP can stimulate the production of a diverse array of blp bacteriocins. This cross stimulation occurs through increased production and secretion of the bacteriocin pheromone, BlpC, and requires a functional competence regulatory system. We show that a highly conserved motif in the promoter of the operon encoding BlpC and its transporter mediates the upregulation by CSP. The accumulation of BlpC following CSP stimulation results in augmented activation of the entire blp locus. Using biofilm-grown organisms as a model for competition and genetic exchange on the mucosal surface, we demonstrate that DNA exchange is enhanced by bacteriocin secretion suggesting that co-stimulation of bacteriocins with competence provides an adaptive advantage. The blp and com regulatory pathways are believed to have diverged and specialized in a remote ancestor of pneumococcus. Despite this, the two systems have maintained a regulatory connection that promotes competition and adaptation by targeting for lysis a wide array of potential competitors while simultaneously providing the means for incorporation of their DNA.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/coordinated-bacteriocin-expression-competence-streptococcus-pneumoniae-contributes-genetic-adaptatio", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259047"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sequence analysis of <i>blp</i> regulated promoters. Consensus sequences that support ComE or BlpR binding are shown on the top of the alignment with conserved nucleotides as capital letters. Alignment of identified BlpR binding sites from the TIGR4 <i>blp</i> locus promoters was adopted from [<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413#ppat.1005413.ref032\" target=\"_blank\">32</a>]. A guanine in the <i>blpA</i> promoter binding site at -90 from the start codon is labeled with an arrow and represents the only BlpR binding site within the <i>blp</i> locus with this change. The <i>qrsA</i> promoter also has a guanine at this position; this promoter is known to be regulated by both ComE and BlpR. Gene designations identify the first gene in the operon that is controlled by the promoter, P1 and P2 refer to the BIR promoters noted in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413#ppat.1005413.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2A</a>. The created <i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub> sequence is shown with the nucleotide change in orange. Shared nucleotides between the two consensus sequences and the listed binding sites are highlighted in yellow. Nucleotides that differ between the two are highlighted in either green (ComE) or blue (BlpR). (B) BlpC<sub>R6</sub> dose response assay using <i>BIR</i><sub><i>p1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> reporter strains: PSD100 (Wt, blue circle), and PSD200 (<i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub>, orange triangle). (C) CSP induction assay using <i>BIR</i><sub><i>p1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> reporters, PSD100 and single nucleotide mutant at <i>blpA</i> promoter PSD200 (<i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub>). CSP induced fold change in BIR transcription normalized to uninduced samples is shown. Gray dashed lines denote the cellular growth. (D) Western blot of cell lysates of BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> strains PSD125 (Wt) and PSD225 (<i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub>) after treatment with increasing concentrations of BlpC<sub>R6</sub>. Unprocessed BlpC<sub>R6</sub> is denoted as pre-BlpC. Fold change compared with wildtype levels for each concentration is shown after values were normalized with pneumolysin (Ply) loading control. (E) Western blot of cell lysates of BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> strains PSD125 (Wt) and PSD225 (<i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub>) after treatment with CSP or BlpC<sub>R6</sub>. Unprocessed BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> is denoted as pre-BlpC. (F) Inhibitory overlay assay using D39 pneumocin producing strains, PSD300 (BIR<sub>P164</sub>), PSD303 (BIR<sub>P164</sub><i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub>), and non-producing PSD299 (BIR<sub>D39</sub>) strain. (G) Response to CSP induction in D39 background <i>BIR</i><sub><i>p2</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> reporter strains. CSP induced fold change in BIR transcription normalized to uninduced samples is shown for PSD306 (Wt) and single nucleotide mutant at <i>blpA</i> promoter PSD307 (<i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A</sub>). Gray dashed lines denote the cellular growth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609377, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/ComE_like_binding_site_in_the_i_blpABC_i_promoter_is_required_for_CSP_induction_of_BlpC_secretion_/2609377", "title"=>"ComE-like binding site in the <i>blpABC</i> promoter is required for CSP induction of BlpC secretion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259080"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Biomass of biofilms when inoculated with single competitor strains: pneumocin producers PSD300 (Wt, BIR<sub>164</sub>, blue circle) or PSD303 (BIR<sub>164</sub><i>blpAp</i><sub>G-90A,</sub> orange triangle), and non-producer control PSD299 (BIR<sub>D39</sub>, blue square). (B-C) PSD300, PSD303 or PSD299 were co-inoculated with sensitive strain, D39x at ratio of 1:10 to form biofilm. Three day old biofilms were disrupted and plated on single selective media to determine (B) competition, and dual selective media to examine (C) transformation efficiency. Two-tailed Mann-Whitney tests were performed to determine statistical significance. * denotes <i>p</i><0.05, *** denotes <i>p</i><0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609410, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Pneumocin_production_promotes_competition_and_DNA_exchange_in_pneumococcal_biofilms_/2609410", "title"=>"Pneumocin production promotes competition and DNA exchange in pneumococcal biofilms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259017"], "description"=>"<p><i>BIR</i><sub><i>p1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> reporters or D39 derivatives expressing inhibitory pneumocins were used to assess the response of the <i>blp</i> locus to competence induction. (A) Diagrammatic representation of the <i>BIR</i><sub><i>p1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> reporter fusion. This strain carries an integrated reporter plasmid in which the 5’ most BIR promoter (P1) is driving <i>lacZ</i>. A second BIR promoter is noted as P2. Integrated plasmid sequences are shown as white arrows. The gene designations are shown below the arrows. Derivatives of this reporter fusion were used to assay for BIR response to CSP induction in THY (B-G) or C+Y (H-I), Open symbols represent samples that were not induced with CSP, closed symbols represent cultures that were induced with 200 ng/ml CSP at time 0. Gray dashed lines denote the cellular growth. Comparison of BIR transcriptional response to CSP addition in Wt PSD100 (B), <i>ΔcomAB</i> PSD140(C), <i>ΔcomE</i> PSD141(D), <i>ΔblpC</i> PSD101(E), <i>blpC</i><sub><i>R6</i></sub><i>H</i><sub><i>6A</i></sub> chimera PSD118(F) or <i>ΔblpH</i> PSD119(G) strains. Comparison of Wt, ComAB and ComE deficient reporters in natural BIR induction in competence permissive C+Y pH 8 (H) or competence non-permissive C+Y pH 6.8 (I). (J) Results of an inhibitory overlay assay using D39 pneumocin producing strains PSD300 (BIR<sub>164</sub>)<sub>,</sub> PSD304 (BIR<sub>164</sub><i>ΔcomAB</i>), PSD305 (BIR<sub>164</sub><i>ΔcomE</i>) and the pneumocin non-producer, PSD299 (BIR<sub>D39</sub>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609350, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/CSP_induction_of_i_BIR_i_transcription_is_dependent_on_ComE_BlpH_and_BlpC_but_not_ComA_/2609350", "title"=>"CSP induction of <i>BIR</i> transcription is dependent on ComE, BlpH and BlpC but not ComA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259086"], "description"=>"<p>Strain, plasmids, primers and peptides.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609419, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Strain_plasmids_primers_and_peptides_/2609419", "title"=>"Strain, plasmids, primers and peptides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259032"], "description"=>"<p>(A) BlpC<sub>R6</sub> dose response in wt PSD100 (blue), <i>ΔcomAB</i> PSD140 (red), <i>and ΔcomE</i> PSD141 (green) version of <i>BIR</i><sub><i>p1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> reporter strains. (B) BlpC<sub>R6</sub> dose response in a <i>ΔblpC</i> reporter strain PSD101 (purple open) and following 10 minutes of CSP pretreatment (purple closed). (C) Western blot of cell lysate of BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> strain (PSD125) after treatment with CSP or BlpC<sub>R6</sub>. Equal amounts of protein were loaded into each lane. (D) BlpC<sub>R6</sub> secretion assay using chimeric BlpC<sub>R6</sub>/H<sub>6A</sub> (BlpC<sub>R6</sub> secretor, BlpC<sub>6A</sub> responsive) <i>BIR</i>:<i>lacZ</i> reporter strains: PSD118 (blue), PSD142 (<i>ΔblpA</i>, purple), and PSD143 (<i>ΔcomAB</i>, red). Upper: <i>BIR</i><sub><i>p1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> induction of chimera strains 30 minutes after peptide addition. Lower: BlpC<sub>R6</sub> concentration secreted into supernatant 30 minutes after induction. P values as noted were determined by student T-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609362, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/CSP_induces_production_and_secretion_of_BlpC_/2609362", "title"=>"CSP induces production and secretion of BlpC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259068"], "description"=>"<p>(A-C) <i>BIR</i><sub><i>P1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> transcriptional response in wildtype (blue circles), <i>blpA</i><sub><i>FS</i></sub> (purple octagon) and <i>blpA</i><sub><i>FS</i></sub>/<i>comAB</i> (red squares) mutant reporters during growth in broth. Closed symbols denote CSP addition, open symbols denote no peptide added. Cellular growth is shown as grey lines. (A) Response to CSP added at time 0 in THY. (B-C) Natural <i>BIR</i><sub><i>P1</i></sub><i>-lacZ</i> induction in competence permissive (B) and competence non-permissive C+Y media (C). (D) Western blot of cell lysate of BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> expressing strains in <i>ΔhtrA</i> background: PSD127 (Wt), PSD131 (<i>ΔblpA</i>), PSD146 (<i>ΔcomAB</i>) and PSD147 (<i>ΔblpA/comAB</i>) after treatment with CSP or BlpC<sub>R6</sub> or both BlpC<sub>R6</sub>/CSP. Preprocessed BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> is denoted as pre-BlpC, the processed form is BlpC. Anti-pneumolysin (Ply) antibody was used as a loading control. Densitometry analysis was performed to determine % processed BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> of the total BlpC<sub>FLAG</sub> detected in each strain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609398, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/ComA_can_process_and_secrete_BlpC_independently_of_BlpA_/2609398", "title"=>"ComA can process and secrete BlpC independently of BlpA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259005"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> (pneumococcus) has remained a persistent cause of invasive and mucosal disease in humans despite the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines. The resilience of this organism is due to its capacity for adaptation through the uptake and incorporation of new genetic material from the surrounding microbial community. DNA uptake and recombination is controlled by a tightly regulated quorum sensing system that is triggered by the extracellular accumulation of competence stimulating peptide (CSP). In this study, we demonstrate that CSP can stimulate the production of a diverse array of <i>blp</i> bacteriocins. This cross stimulation occurs through increased production and secretion of the bacteriocin pheromone, BlpC, and requires a functional competence regulatory system. We show that a highly conserved motif in the promoter of the operon encoding BlpC and its transporter mediates the upregulation by CSP. The accumulation of BlpC following CSP stimulation results in augmented activation of the entire <i>blp</i> locus. Using biofilm-grown organisms as a model for competition and genetic exchange on the mucosal surface, we demonstrate that DNA exchange is enhanced by bacteriocin secretion suggesting that co-stimulation of bacteriocins with competence provides an adaptive advantage. The <i>blp</i> and <i>com</i> regulatory pathways are believed to have diverged and specialized in a remote ancestor of pneumococcus. Despite this, the two systems have maintained a regulatory connection that promotes competition and adaptation by targeting for lysis a wide array of potential competitors while simultaneously providing the means for incorporation of their DNA.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609335, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Coordinated_Bacteriocin_Expression_and_Competence_in_i_Streptococcus_pneumoniae_i_Contributes_to_Genetic_Adaptation_through_Neighbor_Predation/2609335", "title"=>"Coordinated Bacteriocin Expression and Competence in <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> Contributes to Genetic Adaptation through Neighbor Predation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>6, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4259011"], "description"=>"<p>Genes are labeled with colored arrows, colors used match the gene products. Red arrows demonstrate regulatory pathways, black arrows represent secretion pathways. CSP is processed and secreted out of the cell by the ComAB transporter complex. When sufficient local concentrations of CSP accumulate, CSP binding to the receptor ComD activates ComE, a DNA binding protein. ComE then upregulates genes in the competence regulon either directly through binding to promoters or indirectly through induction of an alternative sigma factor. ComE upregulated genes include the genes encoding fratricide effectors and their associated immunity proteins. Blp bacteriocin expression is controlled by the local accumulation of BlpC after secretion and processing by the BlpAB complex. BlpC binds to and activates the two component system, BlpHR. Activated BlpR upregulates the genes in the <i>blp</i> locus including genes in the BIR that encode bacteriocins (pneumocins) and immunity proteins. Pneumocins can target neighboring cells that do not produce Blp specific immunity. In this work we provide evidence that activated ComE can upregulate the production of BlpABC through binding to and upregulating the <i>blpABC</i> promoter. In addition, we show that ComAB can serve as an alternative transporter for BlpC which may play a particularly important role in the absence of a functional BlpAB.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Neighbor Predation Streptococcus pneumoniae", "extracellular accumulation", "operon encoding BlpC", "DNA exchange", "transporter mediates", "blp locus", "adaptive advantage", "mucosal surface", "Genetic Adaptation", "bacteriocin pheromone", "adaptation", "array", "Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes", "mucosal disease", "incorporation", "DNA uptake", "bacteriocin secretion", "blp bacteriocins", "Bacteriocin Expression", "competence", "CSP stimulation results", "organism", "pneumococcu"], "article_id"=>2609341, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Immunology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Wei-Yun Wholey", "Travis J. Kochan", "David N. Storck", "Suzanne Dawid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005413.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Schematic_model_of_the_genetic_organization_and_regulation_of_the_Com_and_Blp_systems_/2609341", "title"=>"Schematic model of the genetic organization and regulation of the Com and Blp systems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 23:00:38"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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