Mom Knows Best: The Universality of Maternal Microbial Transmission
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{"title"=>"Mom Knows Best: The Universality of Maternal Microbial Transmission", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lisa J.", "last_name"=>"Funkhouser", "scopus_author_id"=>"54943127200"}, {"first_name"=>"Seth R.", "last_name"=>"Bordenstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603317453"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369690037", "sgr"=>"84883186674", "issn"=>"15449173", "pmid"=>"23976878", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84883186674", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631", "isbn"=>"1545-7885"}, "id"=>"491a131c-8aa0-3f3f-aef7-0f32bfab7447", "abstract"=>"The sterile womb paradigm is an enduring premise in biology that human infants are born sterile. Recent studies suggest that infants incorporate an initial microbiome before birth and receive copious supplementation of maternal microbes through birth and breastfeeding. Moreover, evidence for microbial maternal transmission is increasingly widespread across animals. This collective knowledge compels a paradigm shift—one in which maternal transmission of microbes advances from a taxonomically specialized phenomenon to a universal one in animals. It also engenders fresh views on the assembly of the microbiome, its role in animal evolution, and applications to human health and disease.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mom-knows-best-universality-maternal-microbial-transmission-1", "reader_count"=>570, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>23, "Researcher"=>113, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>152, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>94, "Other"=>26, "Student > Bachelor"=>83, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>23, "Researcher"=>113, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>152, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Student > Master"=>94, "Other"=>26, "Student > Bachelor"=>83, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>27, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>311, "Philosophy"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>40, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>9, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>83, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>31}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>83}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>27}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>31}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>311}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>40}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>26, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Ghana"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>4, "Canada"=>4, "Netherlands"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "Ireland"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Slovenia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Croatia"=>1}, "group_count"=>16}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1175944"], "description"=>"<p>Cut-away diagram highlighting the various internal and external sources of maternal microbial transmission as well as the species that are commonly associated with transfer from those regions. Regions discussed include the oral cavity <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Bearfield1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-DiGiulio2\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>, the mammary glands <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Perez1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Hunt1\" target=\"_blank\">[78]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-CabreraRubio1\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a>, the sebaceous skin surrounding the breast <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Hunt1\" target=\"_blank\">[78]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Grice1\" target=\"_blank\">[80]</a>, the vaginal tract <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-DominguezBello1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Ravel1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Aagaard1\" target=\"_blank\">[73]</a>, and the intrauterine environment <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Bearfield1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-DiGiulio1\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Jimenez1\" target=\"_blank\">[17]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Jimenez2\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Goldenberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Rautava1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Gosalbes1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631#pbio.1001631-Perez1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>. Illustration by Robert M. Brucker.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "genomics", "microbiology", "microbial", "humans"], "article_id"=>777168, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Lisa J. Funkhouser", "Seth R. Bordenstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sources_of_microbial_transmission_in_humans_from_mother_to_child_/777168", "title"=>"Sources of microbial transmission in humans from mother to child.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-20 01:48:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1175947"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Pea aphid (<i>Acyrthosiphon pisum</i>), photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University/<b>©</b>Bugwood.org/CC-BY-3.0-US; (B) Domesticated chicken hen (<i>Gallus gallus domesticus</i>), photo credit: Ben Scicluna; (C) Sockeye salmon (<i>Oncorhynchus nerka</i>), photo credit: Cacophony; (D) South American river turtle (<i>Podocnemis expansa</i>), photo credit: Wilfredor. All photos were obtained from Wikimedia Commons (<a href=\"http://www.commons.wikimedia.org\" target=\"_blank\">www.commons.wikimedia.org</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "genomics", "microbiology", "animals", "microbial", "maternal"], "article_id"=>777171, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Lisa J. Funkhouser", "Seth R. Bordenstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001631.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_animals_that_exhibit_microbial_maternal_transmission_/777171", "title"=>"Examples of animals that exhibit microbial maternal transmission.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-20 01:48:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"30", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"156", "full-text"=>"186", "pdf"=>"43", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"57", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"128", "full-text"=>"171", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"83", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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Relative Metric

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