Bistable Expression of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Leads to the Formation of an Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Bistable expression of virulence genes in salmonella leads to the formation of an antibiotic-tolerant subpopulation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Arnoldini", "scopus_author_id"=>"44961126300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ima Avalos", "last_name"=>"Vizcarra", "scopus_author_id"=>"35730663200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rafael", "last_name"=>"Peña-Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"34880502800"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Stocker", "scopus_author_id"=>"37085753100"}, {"first_name"=>"Médéric", "last_name"=>"Diard", "scopus_author_id"=>"35763599000"}, {"first_name"=>"Viola", "last_name"=>"Vogel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102834836"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert E.", "last_name"=>"Beardmore", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603602579"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolf Dietrich", "last_name"=>"Hardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"35560476700"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Ackermann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102624615"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604853548", "sgr"=>"84908023311", "issn"=>"15457885", "pmid"=>"25136970", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908023311", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"49f64f3c-0ada-388e-8cd4-52699eb024d9", "abstract"=>"The bistable expression of virulence genes in Salmonella allows a clonal population to hedge its bets: one subpopulation suffers a growth cost, but is tolerant to antibiotics.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bistable-expression-virulence-genes-salmonella-leads-formation-antibiotictolerant-subpopulation", "reader_count"=>156, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>48, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>48, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>100, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>12, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>10, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>10}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>100}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Belgium"=>3, "United States"=>8, "Mexico"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84908023311"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84908023311?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84908023311&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84908023311&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84908023311", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84908023311", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84908023311", "dc:title"=>"Bistable expression of virulence genes in salmonella leads to the formation of an antibiotic-tolerant subpopulation", "dc:creator"=>"Arnoldini M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Biology", "prism:issn"=>"15449173", "prism:eIssn"=>"15457885", "prism:volume"=>"12", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"8", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-01-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928", "citedby-count"=>"85", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"ETH Zürich", "affiliation-city"=>"Zurich ZH,", "affiliation-country"=>"Switzerland"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology", "affiliation-city"=>"Dubendorf", "affiliation-country"=>"Switzerland"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25136970", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "source-id"=>"12977", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosbiology%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pbio.1001928", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Wikipedia | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"343", "xml_views"=>"13", "html_views"=>"2431"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"184", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"1724"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"104", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"439"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"323"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"230"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"241"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"181"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"150"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"160"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642254"], "description"=>"<p>Dynamics of the fraction of <i>ΔhilD</i> cells in mixed cultures with wild-type cells over time. Cultures were inoculated with approximately 1∶1 ratios of the two strains. A kanamycin resistance marker was used to distinguish between strains. Without antibiotic challenge, <i>ΔhilD</i> cells increase in frequency relative to wild-type cells (blue boxes), whereas exposure to 0.05 µg/ml ciprofloxacin reverses the trend, and <i>ΔhilD</i> cells decrease in frequency relative to wild type (red boxes). Boxes span the range between upper and lower quartile; thick lines denote the median; whiskers denote the highest and lowest values still within 1.5 interquartile ranges of the upper and lower quartiles, respectively; empty circles represent data points that are outside this range. The addition of ciprofloxacin has a significant influence on the outcome of competition (two way ANOVA, Time×Treatment interaction, <i>p</i><2×10<sup>−16</sup>, <i>N</i> = 20).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["labor", "survival", "antibiotic", "virulence genes", "phenotypic heterogeneity", "virulence gene expression", "phenotypically avirulent subpopulations"], "article_id"=>1144968, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Markus Arnoldini", "Ima Avalos Vizcarra", "Rafael Peña-Miller", "Nicolas Stocker", "Médéric Diard", "Viola Vogel", "Robert E. Beardmore", "Wolf-Dietrich Hardt", "Martin Ackermann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Selection_for_genetically_avirulent_mutants_is_reversed_when_exposed_to_antibiotic_/1144968", "title"=>"Selection for genetically avirulent mutants is reversed when exposed to antibiotic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-19 03:38:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642321", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642322", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642323", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642324", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642325", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642327", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642328", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642330", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642331", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642332", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642333", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642334", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642336", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642338", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642339", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642341", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642342"], "description"=>"<div><p>Phenotypic heterogeneity can confer clonal groups of organisms with new functionality. A paradigmatic example is the bistable expression of virulence genes in <i>Salmonella typhimurium</i>, which leads to phenotypically virulent and phenotypically avirulent subpopulations. The two subpopulations have been shown to divide labor during <i>S. typhimurium</i> infections. Here, we show that heterogeneous virulence gene expression in this organism also promotes survival against exposure to antibiotics through a bet-hedging mechanism. Using microfluidic devices in combination with fluorescence time-lapse microscopy and quantitative image analysis, we analyzed the expression of virulence genes at the single cell level and related it to survival when exposed to antibiotics. We found that, across different types of antibiotics and under concentrations that are clinically relevant, the subpopulation of bacterial cells that express virulence genes shows increased survival after exposure to antibiotics. Intriguingly, there is an interplay between the two consequences of phenotypic heterogeneity. The bet-hedging effect that arises through heterogeneity in virulence gene expression can protect clonal populations against avirulent mutants that exploit and subvert the division of labor within these populations. We conclude that bet-hedging and the division of labor can arise through variation in a single trait and interact with each other. This reveals a new degree of functional complexity of phenotypic heterogeneity. In addition, our results suggest a general principle of how pathogens can evade antibiotics: Expression of virulence factors often entails metabolic costs and the resulting growth retardation could generally increase tolerance against antibiotics and thus compromise treatment.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["labor", "survival", "antibiotic", "virulence genes", "phenotypic heterogeneity", "virulence gene expression", "phenotypically avirulent subpopulations"], "article_id"=>1145021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Markus Arnoldini", "Ima Avalos Vizcarra", "Rafael Peña-Miller", "Nicolas Stocker", "Médéric Diard", "Viola Vogel", "Robert E. Beardmore", "Wolf-Dietrich Hardt", "Martin Ackermann"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.s017"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bistable_Expression_of_Virulence_Genes_in_Salmonella_Leads_to_the_Formation_of_an_Antibiotic_Tolerant_Subpopulation/1145021", "title"=>"Bistable Expression of Virulence Genes in <i>Salmonella</i> Leads to the Formation of an Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-19 03:38:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642252"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) We used time-lapse analysis of single cells to study tolerance to antibiotics. Bacteria were first grown in LB medium (marked blue), shifted to spent LB at 160 min (yellow), shifted to spent LB containing 0.05 µg/ml ciprofloxacin at 290 min (red), and shifted back to LB at 435 min (blue). (A) Bacterial cells were grown in microfluidic devices in dead-ended channels, with medium flowing through a bigger main channel orthogonal to them. The top row shows a temporal montage of images of a channel in which the bottom cell started expressing <i>ttss-1</i> and resumed division after exposure to 0.05 µg/ml ciprofloxacin (“Ch 1”), and the bottom row shows a temporal montage of images of a channel in which the bottom cell did not express <i>ttss-1</i> and did not resume division after exposure to antibiotic (“Ch 2”). For each channel, five sets of still images from different phases of the experiment are shown. Each set consists of 12 images recorded at 5-min time intervals. (B) Quantitative analysis of all 149 cells from this experiment. Every horizontal line represents data for an individual cell over 975 min. Dots mark the time points at which this cell divided. Cells are sorted according to <i>ttss-1</i> expression during antibiotic exposure, measured as mean GFP fluorescence during that time interval. The cell index indicates the rank of a cell according to its mean GFP expression during antibiotic exposure; a lower cell index indicates lower GFP expression, and a higher cell index indicates higher GFP expression. The color of the lines indicates real-time GFP intensity. Shading indicates the data corresponding to the cells shown in (A). Three independent experiments were performed, all of them showing significant positive correlations of survival with <i>ttss-1</i> expression (logistic regression with ANOVA, <i>p</i> = 8.8×10<sup>−14</sup>, 2.4×10<sup>−5</sup>, 1.3×10<sup>−8</sup>; <i>N</i> = 149, 137, and 144), indicating that T1<sup>+</sup> cells preferentially survive antibiotic exposure. (C) Histogram of cells in different GFP categories. Color-coding of the columns denotes the probabilities to survive exposure to 0.05 µg/ml ciprofloxacin. The columns were assigned visually to two categories according to GFP intensity (“GFP on,” “GFP off”), and the percentage of cells surviving in the different categories was calculated. (D) Analysis of the single cell elongation rates 75 min before and 25 min after addition of antibiotic and survival. The black curve indicates the survival probability depending on the cell elongation rate as determined by a logistic regression model. The histograms show how many cells were in the respective ranges of elongation rates, and whether they survive antibiotic treatment (full bars, top) or die (empty bars, bottom). For all three experiments, survival was negatively correlated with single cell elongation rates (logistic regression with ANOVA, <i>p</i> = 7.8×10<sup>−4</sup>, 3.2×10<sup>−4</sup>, 1.0×10<sup>−4</sup>, <i>N</i> = 151, 137, and 114).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["labor", "survival", "antibiotic", "virulence genes", "phenotypic heterogeneity", "virulence gene expression", "phenotypically avirulent subpopulations"], "article_id"=>1144966, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Markus Arnoldini", "Ima Avalos Vizcarra", "Rafael Peña-Miller", "Nicolas Stocker", "Médéric Diard", "Viola Vogel", "Robert E. Beardmore", "Wolf-Dietrich Hardt", "Martin Ackermann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_ttss_1_is_associated_with_tolerance_to_antibiotic_exposure_/1144966", "title"=>"Expression of <i>ttss-1</i> is associated with tolerance to antibiotic exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-19 03:38:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1642253"], "description"=>"<p>Pooled results of three independent experiments analogous to the one shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928#pbio-1001928-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, except that cells were exposed to a higher ciprofloxacin concentration, 10 µg/ml. We determined the <i>ttss-1</i> expression levels of a total of 3,337 cells (measured as GFP fluorescence intensity at the last time point during antibiotic exposure) and recorded their fate during exposure to antibiotics. The histogram shows the number of cells in different GFP intensity categories, indicating <i>ttss-1</i> expression levels. Background fluorescence intensity (measured in areas of the image not containing cells) was subtracted from the measured GFP values in order to allow pooling of different experiments. Color-coding denotes the probabilities to survive exposure to 10 µg/ml ciprofloxacin for each GFP intensity category. In three independent experiments, cells that express <i>ttss-1</i> have a significantly higher survival probability (logistic regression with ANOVA, <i>p</i> = 0.03, 6.2×10<sup>−8</sup>, 4.2×10<sup>−3</sup>; <i>N</i> = 653, 1,208, and 1,476). In addition, columns were assigned visually to two categories according to their GFP expression (“GFP on,” “GFP off”), and the percentage of cells surviving in the different categories was calculated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["labor", "survival", "antibiotic", "virulence genes", "phenotypic heterogeneity", "virulence gene expression", "phenotypically avirulent subpopulations"], "article_id"=>1144967, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Markus Arnoldini", "Ima Avalos Vizcarra", "Rafael Peña-Miller", "Nicolas Stocker", "Médéric Diard", "Viola Vogel", "Robert E. Beardmore", "Wolf-Dietrich Hardt", "Martin Ackermann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001928.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tolerance_of_T1_cells_is_also_observed_at_a_clinically_relevant_antibiotic_concentration_/1144967", "title"=>"Tolerance of T1<sup><b>+</b></sup> cells is also observed at a clinically relevant antibiotic concentration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-19 03:38:38"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"123", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"197", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[286]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Fluidics", "average_usage"=>[317, 522]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[287]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts