Practical Measures of Integrated Information for Time-Series Data
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Practical measures of integrated information for time- series data", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adam B.", "last_name"=>"Barrett", "scopus_author_id"=>"35757362700"}, {"first_name"=>"Anil K.", "last_name"=>"Seth", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103146527"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"361204739", "issn"=>"1553734X", "isbn"=>"0738202967", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79551536831", "pmid"=>"21283779", "sgr"=>"79551536831"}, "id"=>"17a81e1d-04ed-34d0-98e5-756dd01af87b", "abstract"=>"A recent measure of 'integrated information', (DM), quantifies the extent to which a system generates more information than the sum of its parts as it transitions between states, possibly reflecting levels of consciousness generated by neural systems. However, (DM) is defined only for discrete Markov systems, which are unusual in biology; as a result, (DM) can rarely be measured in practice. Here, we describe two new measures, (E) and (AR), that overcome these limitations and are easy to apply to time-series data. We use simulations to demonstrate the in-practice applicability of our measures, and to explore their properties. Our results provide new opportunities for examining information integration in real and model systems and carry implications for relations between integrated information, consciousness, and other neurocognitive processes. However, our findings pose challenges for theories that ascribe physical meaning to the measured quantities.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/practical-measures-integrated-information-time-series-data", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>4, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79551536831"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79551536831?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79551536831&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79551536831&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79551536831", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:79551536831", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-79551536831", "dc:title"=>"Practical measures of integrated information for time- series data", "dc:creator"=>"Barrett A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "prism:issn"=>"1553734X", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537358", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"1", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-01-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"January 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052", "citedby-count"=>"93", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Sussex", "affiliation-city"=>"Brighton", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21283779", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1001052", "source-id"=>"4000151810", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fploscompbiol%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pcbi.1001052", "share_count"=>3, "like_count"=>1, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>4}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"170", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"742"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"437"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"372"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"363"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"72", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"190"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"118"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"140"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"182"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"207"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"243"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"86"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"98"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"82"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"62", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"81", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805745"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Optimal network for 2 afferents of 0.25 to each node. This has . (b) Optimal network for total afferent of 0.5 to each node, and all connections to a given node equal. This has .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["optimized"], "article_id"=>476123, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Networks_optimized_for_high_integrated_information_/476123", "title"=>"Networks optimized for high integrated information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:42:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/806037"], "description"=>"<p>Methods of computation are (i) computed analytically; (ii) computed numerically from 10 trials of 3000 data points each; (iii) computed numerically from 10 trials of 10,000 data points each; (iv) computed analytically; (v) (extended) computed analytically, and (vi) computed numerically from 10 trials of 3000 data points each, with the noise exponentially distributed. For numerical computation, means and standard deviations are given; the number of trials resulting in each value is given in parentheses. In all cases .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computed", "ways", "networks", "shown"], "article_id"=>476410, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integrated_information_computed_in_various_ways_for_the_networks_shown_in_Figs_1_and_2_/476410", "title"=>"Integrated information computed in various ways for the networks shown in Figs. 1 and 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805907"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Network 1(c). (b) Network 2(b). (c) Example MVAR(3) process, see Eq. (0.44).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["states", "time-steps", "varying"], "article_id"=>476276, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integrated_information_measured_for_states_multiple_time_steps_in_the_past_i_e_for_varying_/476276", "title"=>"Integrated information, measured for states multiple time-steps in the past, i.e. for varying .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:44:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805675"], "description"=>"<p>(a)–(g) Connectivity diagrams for seven systems as specified by the corresponding connectivity matrices . Arrow widths reflect connection strengths: for (a)–(c) and (e)–(g), all connection strengths are 0.25; for system (d) each connection strength is 1/14, thus the total afferent connection to each element is 0.5. (h) Integrated information, as measured by () for each of the systems (a)–(g), via simulated data (bars) and analytically via the generative model (asterisks). For simulated data, 10 trials were performed, with each trial generating 3000 data points. Bars show mean values; error bars show plus/minus one standard deviation. For system 1(g), sizes of sub-systems in the MIB varied across trials, falling into two distinct groups which are shown separately (the top bar reflects a group of 6 trials; the bottom bar, 4 trials).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["markovian", "gaussian"], "article_id"=>476056, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integrated_information_in_Markovian_Gaussian_systems_/476056", "title"=>"Integrated information in Markovian Gaussian systems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:40:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805972"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows an empirical probability distribution as a histogram taken from 3000 data points from element 1 in (a) network 1(b), (b) network 1(d), and (c) network 2(b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "elements", "networks", "animated", "exponentially", "distributed"], "article_id"=>476342, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stationary_distributions_for_elements_in_networks_animated_with_exponentially_distributed_noise_/476342", "title"=>"Stationary distributions for elements in networks animated with exponentially distributed noise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:45:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/401917"], "description"=>"<div><p>A recent measure of ‘integrated information’, Φ<sub>DM</sub>, quantifies the extent to which a system generates more information than the sum of its parts as it transitions between states, possibly reflecting levels of consciousness generated by neural systems. However, Φ<sub>DM</sub> is defined only for discrete Markov systems, which are unusual in biology; as a result, Φ<sub>DM</sub> can rarely be measured in practice. Here, we describe two new measures, Φ<sub>E</sub> and Φ<sub>AR</sub>, that overcome these limitations and are easy to apply to time-series data. We use simulations to demonstrate the in-practice applicability of our measures, and to explore their properties. Our results provide new opportunities for examining information integration in real and model systems and carry implications for relations between integrated information, consciousness, and other neurocognitive processes. However, our findings pose challenges for theories that ascribe physical meaning to the measured quantities.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures", "time-series"], "article_id"=>139411, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Practical_Measures_of_Integrated_Information_for_Time_Series_Data/139411", "title"=>"Practical Measures of Integrated Information for Time-Series Data", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 02:36:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805843"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Histogram of for the 30 networks in the final population of a GA that yielded optimal network 2(a). (b) Histogram of for the 30 networks in the final population of a GA that yielded optimal network 2(b). (c) Histogram of percentage decrease in following single mutations of network 2(a) (200 evaluations). (d) Histogram of percentage decrease in following single mutations of network 2(b) (200 evaluations). (e) Discontinuity in as connection strength from element 6 to element 1 continuously changes (network 2(a); (all other connections fixed at 0.25)).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/theoretical neuroscience"], "article_id"=>476225, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Adam B. Barrett", "Anil K. Seth"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001052.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examination_of_the_landscape_with_respect_to_network_connectivity_/476225", "title"=>"Examination of the landscape with respect to network connectivity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:43:45"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"13", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"9", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"5", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"3", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"6", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"1", "unique-ip"=>"4", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"318", "full-text"=>"644", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[306, 540, 664, 768, 864, 959, 1036, 1121, 1199, 1277, 1341, 1411, 1477, 1543, 1609, 1675, 1739, 1802, 1868, 1933, 1995, 2050, 2107, 2164, 2220, 2277, 2327, 2374, 2436, 2488, 2542, 2594, 2650, 2705, 2769, 2817, 2859]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[355, 609, 735, 840, 944, 1029, 1109, 1193, 1255, 1320, 1391, 1469, 1540, 1608, 1683, 1753, 1824, 1905, 1967, 2042, 2117, 2189, 2240, 2300, 2392, 2452, 2509, 2569, 2635, 2710, 2772, 2846, 2882, 2956, 3014, 3086, 3139]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[303, 547, 667, 770, 875, 974, 1062, 1140, 1210, 1276, 1344, 1408, 1473, 1534, 1602, 1665, 1732, 1800, 1863, 1920, 1984, 2048, 2099, 2161, 2222, 2285, 2341, 2404, 2473, 2528, 2595, 2650, 2713, 2772, 2835, 2886, 2938]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[296, 505, 611, 719, 815, 886, 966, 1040, 1111, 1173, 1227, 1283, 1342, 1400, 1459, 1516, 1572, 1635, 1696, 1752, 1804, 1861, 1919, 1976, 2035, 2093, 2142, 2198, 2256, 2309, 2373, 2433, 2486, 2540, 2594, 2652, 2698]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts