Learning, Memory, and the Role of Neural Network Architecture
Publication Date
June 30, 2011
Journal
PLOS Computational Biology
Authors
Ann M. Hermundstad, Kevin S. Brown, Danielle S. Bassett & Jean M. Carlson
Volume
7
Issue
6
Pages
e1002063
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1002063
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738455
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3127797
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21738455
Web of Science
000292381900010
Scopus
79959819850
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/learning-memory-role-neural-network-architecture
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Learning, memory, and the role of neural network architecture", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ann M.", "last_name"=>"Hermundstad", "scopus_author_id"=>"36161912500"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin S.", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"55457094000"}, {"first_name"=>"Danielle S.", "last_name"=>"Bassett", "scopus_author_id"=>"15047396100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean M.", "last_name"=>"Carlson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402114752"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1553734X", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959819850", "sgr"=>"79959819850", "pui"=>"362058295", "isbn"=>"1553-7358 (Electronic)\\n1553-734X (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21738455", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063"}, "id"=>"fd70d9da-2f19-3859-ab7e-e19e182c2774", "abstract"=>"The performance of information processing systems, from artificial neural networks to natural neuronal ensembles, depends heavily on the underlying system architecture. In this study, we compare the performance of parallel and layered network architectures during sequential tasks that require both acquisition and retention of information, thereby identifying tradeoffs between learning and memory processes. During the task of supervised, sequential function approximation, networks produce and adapt representations of external information. Performance is evaluated by statistically analyzing the error in these representations while varying the initial network state, the structure of the external information, and the time given to learn the information. We link performance to complexity in network architecture by characterizing local error landscape curvature. We find that variations in error landscape structure give rise to tradeoffs in performance; these include the ability of the network to maximize accuracy versus minimize inaccuracy and produce specific versus generalizable representations of information. Parallel networks generate smooth error landscapes with deep, narrow minima, enabling them to find highly specific representations given sufficient time. While accurate, however, these representations are difficult to generalize. In contrast, layered networks generate rough error landscapes with a variety of local minima, allowing them to quickly find coarse representations. Although less accurate, these representations are easily adaptable. The presence of measurable performance tradeoffs in both layered and parallel networks has implications for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of natural and artificial learning systems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/learning-memory-role-neural-network-architecture", "reader_count"=>111, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>16, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>13, "Physics and Astronomy"=>10, "Psychology"=>13, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>13}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>16}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>6, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Belarus"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Russia"=>1, "Greece"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79959819850"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79959819850?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79959819850&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=79959819850&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/79959819850", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:79959819850", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-79959819850", "dc:title"=>"Learning, memory, and the role of neural network architecture", "dc:creator"=>"Hermundstad A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "prism:issn"=>"1553734X", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537358", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"6", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2011-06-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"June 2011", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063", "citedby-count"=>"35", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of California, Santa Barbara", "affiliation-city"=>"Santa Barbara", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21738455", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002063", "source-id"=>"4000151810", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fploscompbiol%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pcbi.1002063", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>1}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"249", "xml_views"=>"22", "html_views"=>"1162"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"95"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"91"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"384"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"144"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"134"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"134"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"154"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"152"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759917"], "description"=>"<p>Panels (a) and (b) show solutions produced respectively by the fan and stacked networks, indicating for each network the approximation (solid curve) of the original points (point markers) and a subset of approximations (dashed curves) of the new and buffer points. In this realization, the fan network fits the original points with a high order polynomial, while the stacked network produces a largely linear fit. Subsequent approximations retain these features of . Panels (c) and (d) respectively show the CDFs of and , with the average value of each distribution marked by a filled circle. (c) The fan network achieves a lower minimum but higher maximum error on the original points than does the stacked network, resulting in a wider distribution with a higher average error. (d) Both networks produce low minimum errors on the new points, but the fan network again produces higher average and maximum errors than does the stacked network. These results are qualitatively similar given larger networks (<a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi.1002063.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>) and different sets of original points (<a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi.1002063.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["solutions"], "article_id"=>430293, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_solutions_and_error_distributions_/430293", "title"=>"Network solutions and error distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 00:04:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760130"], "description"=>"<p>Error is projected onto the two stiffest eigenvector directions and about minima produced by the (a) fan and (b) stacked network given unlimited training time. The two minima were chosen for comparison because they have the same number and similar magnitude of nonzero eigenvalues, although similar behavior was observed for alternative minima. The insets show zoomed in views of the contour plots about their central minima. (a) The projection of the fan landscape shows a single deep minimum surrounded by smooth peaks. (b) In contrast, the projection of the stacked landscape shows a long, deep valley of several local putative minima separated by low barriers. The surrounding landscape is much bumpier than that of the fan network.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "biophysics", "neuroscience", "computer science", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>430499, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_error_landscapes_/430499", "title"=>"Network error landscapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 00:08:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760048"], "description"=>"<p>CDFs of are shown given (a) unlimited and (b) limited training time for the five networks shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi-1002063-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1(a)</a>. (a) The fan network consistently finds zero error solutions, while all other networks find solutions with a range of error values. (b) Intermediate networks find lower error solutions than do the fan and stacked networks (upper inset). Increasing significantly decreases the both the maximum error and the frequency of high error solutions (lower inset). In both (a) and (b), increasing increases (filled circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "biophysics", "neuroscience", "computer science", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>430424, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_performance_under_variable_learning_conditions_/430424", "title"=>"Network performance under variable learning conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 00:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759984"], "description"=>"<p>Best, worst, and average network performance is measured with respect to solutions and produced by the five networks shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi-1002063-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1(a)</a>. With respect to solutions produced during the second training session, increasing (a) decreases the maximum value of at the cost of increasing its minimum value, (b) decreases the maximum error in both and , and (c) decreases the average solution variance and the average errors and . (d) Increasing increases achieved during the first session but decreases and achieved during the second session. These results are qualitatively similar given larger networks (<a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi.1002063.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>) and different sets of original points (<a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi.1002063.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S4</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "biophysics", "neuroscience", "computer science", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>430347, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tradeoffs_in_network_learning_and_memory_/430347", "title"=>"Tradeoffs in network learning and memory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 00:05:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382129", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382159", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382182", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/382207"], "description"=>"<div><p>The performance of information processing systems, from artificial neural networks to natural neuronal ensembles, depends heavily on the underlying system architecture. In this study, we compare the performance of parallel and layered network architectures during sequential tasks that require both acquisition and retention of information, thereby identifying tradeoffs between learning and memory processes. During the task of supervised, sequential function approximation, networks produce and adapt representations of external information. Performance is evaluated by statistically analyzing the error in these representations while varying the initial network state, the structure of the external information, and the time given to learn the information. We link performance to complexity in network architecture by characterizing local error landscape curvature. We find that variations in error landscape structure give rise to tradeoffs in performance; these include the ability of the network to maximize accuracy versus minimize inaccuracy and produce specific versus generalizable representations of information. Parallel networks generate smooth error landscapes with deep, narrow minima, enabling them to find highly specific representations given sufficient time. While accurate, however, these representations are difficult to generalize. In contrast, layered networks generate rough error landscapes with a variety of local minima, allowing them to quickly find coarse representations. Although less accurate, these representations are easily adaptable. The presence of measurable performance tradeoffs in both layered and parallel networks has implications for understanding the behavior of a wide variety of natural and artificial learning systems.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neural"], "article_id"=>135481, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Learning_Memory_and_the_Role_of_Neural_Network_Architecture/135481", "title"=>"Learning, Memory, and the Role of Neural Network Architecture", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 01:31:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759826"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Network architectures considered in this study. Indicated below each network are the number of hidden layers and nodes per layer , the total number of adjustable parameters , and the name by which we refer to the network. (b) Illustration of the sequential learning task described in the text applied to the fan network. Each step of the task includes a concise description of the procedure and the choice of network weights and training data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["architectures"], "article_id"=>430200, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Network_architectures_and_training_task_/430200", "title"=>"Network architectures and training task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 00:03:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760215"], "description"=>"<p>Covariances between (a) and and between (b) and are shown for error landscape minima produced by the five networks shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi-1002063-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1(a)</a>. For each network, the values of are taken from the distributions shown in <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063#pcbi-1002063-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4(a)</a>. Covariances, indicated by ellipses, are centered about their average values, indicated by markers. The semimajor axis of each ellipse marks the direction of maximum covariance. Increasing increases both the average and variance in all three quantities. For a given network, larger values of generally correspond to smaller values of and larger values of .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "biophysics", "neuroscience", "computer science", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>430582, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biophysics", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Ann M. Hermundstad", "Kevin S. Brown", "Danielle S. Bassett", "Jean M. Carlson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002063.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Properties_of_network_error_landscapes_/430582", "title"=>"Properties of network error landscapes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-30 00:09:42"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"20", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"19", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"23", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"25", "pdf"=>"17", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"12", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"7", "unique-ip"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"24", "pdf"=>"20", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"13", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2011-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2011-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[304, 568, 702, 818, 927, 1027, 1118, 1206, 1285, 1357, 1427, 1500, 1564, 1636, 1705, 1773, 1840, 1909, 1974, 2039, 2106, 2170, 2234, 2296, 2358, 2423, 2484, 2546, 2606, 2673, 2734, 2795, 2857, 2921, 2984, 3046, 3100]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[307, 557, 674, 784, 873, 964, 1048, 1134, 1206, 1285, 1350, 1417, 1486, 1553, 1610, 1683, 1752, 1824, 1890, 1953, 2003, 2067, 2132, 2198, 2255, 2304, 2353, 2414, 2468, 2512, 2576, 2625, 2687, 2750, 2808, 2849, 2888]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Artificial intelligence", "average_usage"=>[353, 505, 649, 752, 848, 929, 1030, 1123, 1199, 1282, 1341, 1408, 1527, 1576, 1669, 1728, 1823, 1899, 1971, 2019, 2096, 2162, 2210, 2245, 2283, 2330, 2394, 2440, 2473, 2506, 2571, 2643, 2686, 2752, 2811, 2862, 2908]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Neural networks", "average_usage"=>[366, 640, 772, 889, 995, 1063, 1143, 1232, 1307, 1365, 1406, 1474, 1532, 1576, 1643, 1721, 1806, 1864, 1932, 1988, 2035, 2151, 2217, 2298, 2331, 2387, 2474, 2523, 2580, 2656, 2714, 2762, 2822, 2871, 2925, 2974, 3053]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[347, 582, 700, 805, 909, 997, 1061, 1147, 1220, 1282, 1350, 1411, 1471, 1532, 1600, 1665, 1726, 1790, 1868, 1927, 1986, 2048, 2105, 2166, 2229, 2288, 2347, 2407, 2463, 2525, 2589, 2650, 2704, 2755, 2806, 2854, 2896]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[340, 584, 708, 809, 915, 1005, 1089, 1174, 1254, 1334, 1408, 1478, 1563, 1648, 1716, 1791, 1847, 1915, 1979, 2044, 2105, 2163, 2218, 2297, 2382, 2436, 2493, 2553, 2618, 2682, 2741, 2786, 2847, 2937, 2989, 3039, 3102]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[307, 557, 674, 784, 873, 964, 1048, 1134, 1206, 1285, 1350, 1417, 1486, 1553, 1610, 1683, 1752, 1824, 1890, 1953, 2003, 2067, 2132, 2198, 2255, 2304, 2353, 2414, 2468, 2512, 2576, 2625, 2687, 2750, 2808, 2849, 2888]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts