Endogenous Viral Elements in Animal Genomes
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aris", "last_name"=>"Katzourakis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505851563"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert J.", "last_name"=>"Gifford", "scopus_author_id"=>"56049718700"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "pui"=>"360082647", "pmid"=>"21124940", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191", "sgr"=>"78649718268", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78649718268"}, "id"=>"0eee05ed-3d58-347c-830e-75c86272d1f8", "abstract"=>"Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements {(EVEs)} derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded {RNA,} reverse-transcribing {DNA,} and segmented {RNA} viruses, and the first endogenous {DNA} viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of {EVEs} across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as {mRNA.} For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/endogenous-viral-elements-animal-genomes", "reader_count"=>328, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>64, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>94, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>40, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>64, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>94, "Student > Postgraduate"=>16, "Student > Master"=>37, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>40, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>210, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6, "Computer Science"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>43, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>9, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>210}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>43}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>17, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Portugal"=>1, "Russia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "India"=>1, "Venezuela"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Brazil"=>7, "Italy"=>3, "Mexico"=>2, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>8}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/78649718268"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/78649718268?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=78649718268&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=78649718268&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/78649718268", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:78649718268", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-78649718268", "dc:title"=>"Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes", "dc:creator"=>"Katzourakis A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Genetics", "prism:issn"=>"15537390", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537404", "prism:volume"=>"6", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2010-11-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"November 2010", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191", "citedby-count"=>"317", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Oxford", "affiliation-city"=>"Oxford", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"21124940", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1001191", "source-id"=>"4000151808", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosgenetics%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pgen.1001191", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>2, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>3}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Twitter

Wikipedia | Further Information

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"572", "xml_views"=>"21", "html_views"=>"2077"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"317", "xml_views"=>"26", "html_views"=>"1072"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"147", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"542"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"285"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"300"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"245"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"157"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"170"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"140"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"346"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"251"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"74", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"249"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"347"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"330"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"282"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1351"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"-3325"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"309"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"197"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"280"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"205"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"300"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"288"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"308"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"407"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"305"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"240"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"315"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"216"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"242"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"316"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"240"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"289"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"329"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"385"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"358"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"307"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"451"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"496"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"423"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"303"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"317"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"355"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"510"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"767"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"697"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"444"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"215"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"223"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"73", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"277"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"201"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"226"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"156"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"55", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"150"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"240"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"239"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"251"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"173"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"156"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"226"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"325"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"186"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"230"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"161"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"174"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"183"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"192"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"235"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"206"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"284"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"239"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"213"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"140"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"230"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"219"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"441"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"533"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"324"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"157"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"143"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"153"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"102"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"88", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407586", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407634", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407717", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407791", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407817", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407853", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407928", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407949", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407977"], "description"=>"<div><p>Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic <em>in silico</em> screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endogenous", "viral", "elements", "genomes"], "article_id"=>140521, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Endogenous_Viral_Elements_in_Animal_Genomes/140521", "title"=>"Endogenous Viral Elements in Animal Genomes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 00:08:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816906"], "description"=>"<p>Animal viruses exhibit a range of genome types and replication strategies. While all viruses must produce mRNA in order to express proteins, steps between entry into the cell and the expression of mRNA vary greatly. Examples of the known animal virus replication strategies are shown to the left of the figure, with the representative families listed for each case. Arrows indicate steps in replication. Red lines indicate pathways that lead to viral genetic material becoming integrated into the nuclear genome of the host cell. Retroviruses are unique amongst animal viruses in that integration occurs as an obligate step in replication. For all other animal viruses integration occurs anomalously, through interaction with cellular retroelements such as LINEs, or via non-homologous recombination with genomic DNA. If integration occurs in a germ line cell that goes on to develop into a viable host organism, an EVE is formed. Green lines show the evolution of an EVE in its host lineage. In the example given, the EVE reaches genetic fixation at the point indicated, and is inherited by all descendant hosts thereafter. Assuming that insertion occurs randomly, the presence of related EVEs at the same locus in both descendant species A and B indicates that insertion occurred prior to their divergence, allowing a minimum age for the insertion to be inferred from the estimated timescale of their evolution. Conversely, the presence of an empty insertion site in species C provides a maximum age for the insertion. Abbreviations: dsDNA (double stranded DNA); ssDNA (single stranded DNA, dsRNA (double stranded RNA); RNA-ve (negative sense, single stranded RNA); RNA-ve (negative sense, single stranded RNA); RNA+ve (positive sense, single stranded RNA).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["replication", "endogenous", "viral", "genomic", "fossil"], "article_id"=>487273, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viral_replication_strategies_endogenous_viral_elements_and_the_genomic_fossil_record_/487273", "title"=>"Viral replication strategies, endogenous viral elements, and the genomic fossil record.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:01:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816990"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Summary genetic structures of Mononegavirus EVE sets (<i>Borna</i>-, <i>Rhabdo</i>- and <i>Filoviridae</i>) shown relative to genus type species. The most intact elements are shown for each host taxon. Vertical lines between EVEs in the same host species that are derived from distinct genes indicate that the EVEs are not contiguous in the host genome. Abbreviations for viral type species (bold), host species (italics), and host taxa (bold, italic, underline) are indicated to the left of each EVE. Taxonomic groups are shown for EVE insertions identified as orthologs. Poly-A tails are shown for EVEs that had these features. Intact ORFs (circles) and expressed sequences (crosses) are indicated. Phylogenetic relationships of (b) bornavirus, (c) rhabdovirus and (d) filovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses. Taxa that are shown as genetic structures in (a) are indicated by colored squares. Support for the ML phylogenetic trees was evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates, and all three trees are midpoint rooted for display purposes. Abbreviations: BDV = Borna disease virus; ZEBOV = Zaire ebola virus; VSV = vesicular stomatitis virus, L-pol = L-polymerase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["structures", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "mononegavirus"], "article_id"=>487357, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_structures_and_phylogenetic_relationships_of_Mononegavirus_EVEs_/487357", "title"=>"Genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of Mononegavirus EVEs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:02:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817069"], "description"=>"<p>Summary genetic structures of EVEs derived from segmented RNA viruses (a) <i>Reoviridae</i> (Seadornavirus genus), (b) <i>Orthomyxoviridae</i> (Quarjavirus genus), (c) <i>Bunyaviridae</i> (Nairovirus and Phlebovirus genera)) shown relative to the genus type species. The most intact elements are shown for each host taxon. Intact ORFs (circles) and expressed sequences (crosses) are indicated. Maximum likelihood phylogenies of EVEs and exogenous viruses are shown; (d) <i>Reoviridae</i> (segment 5) (e) <i>Orthomyxoviridae</i> (GP), (f) Nairovirus (NP) (g) Phlebovirus (NP) Colored boxes indicate taxa that are shown as genetic structures in panels a-c. Support for trees was evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates. Abbreviations: LNV = Liaoning virus; CCHF = Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; UUKV = Uukuniemi virus; QRFV = Quaranfil virus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["structures", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "eves", "segmented", "rna"], "article_id"=>487433, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_structures_and_phylogenetic_relationships_of_EVEs_related_to_segmented_RNA_viruses_/487433", "title"=>"Genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of EVEs related to segmented RNA viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:03:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817138"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Genetic structures of non-overlapping flavivirus EVEs in the <i>Aedes aegyptii</i> genome. (b) Phylogenetic relationship of consensus flavivirus EVE sequences (spanning most of the region shown in (a) with exogenous and endogenous flaviruses. (c) Genetic structures of non-overlapping rtDNA (hepadnavirus) EVEs shown relative to the genus type species. Numbers to the left indicate the <i>T. guttata</i> chromosome on which the EVE is present. (d) Phylogenetic relationships of consensus zebrafinch EVEs and representative exogenous viruses. Avihepadnavirus genus is rooted on Woodchuck HBV (Orthohepadnavirus). All ML phylogenetic trees were inferred from amino acid alignments using the best-fitting model of evolution. Support for trees was evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates. Abbreviations: KRV = Kamiti River virus, HBV = hepatitis B virus, dHBV = duck hepatitis B virus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["structures", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "eves", "flaviviruses"], "article_id"=>487506, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_structures_and_phylogenetic_relationships_of_EVEs_related_to_flaviviruses_and_hepadnaviruses_/487506", "title"=>"Genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of EVEs related to flaviviruses and hepadnaviruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:05:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817240"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Summary genetic structures of ssDNA EVE sets shown relative to the genus type species. The most intact elements are shown for each host taxon. EVE hosts (bold) and abbreviations for viral type species (bold, underline), and the total number of matches identified (italic) are indicated to the left of each EVE structure. Bars behind ORFs indicate non-coding viral DNA. Intact ORFs (circles) and expressed sequences (crosses) are indicated. <sup>1</sup> The <i>M. lucifugus</i> element is a composite of two genomic contigs; <sup>2</sup> Structures represent a composite of semi-overlapping fragments; <sup>3</sup> Element has undergone genomic rearrangements, with the arrow indicating the direction of the rearranged fragment. (b) Phylogenetic relationships of dependovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses, based on NS1 gene and rooted on snake parvovirus. A dolphin EVE (indicated by an asterisk) groups robustly with avian rather than mammalian isolates. (d) Phylogenetic relationships of parvovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses, based on NS1 gene and rooted on Aleutian mink disease virus. Support for both ML phylogenetic trees was evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates. EVEs potentially comprising a new genus are indicated. (d) Phylogenetic relationships of circovirus EVEs and representative exogenous viruses, based on the Rep gene and rooted on avian circoviruses, with support for the ML phylogenetic tree evaluated using 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replicates. Taxa that are shown as genetic structures in (a) are indicated by colored squares (EVEs) and circles (exogenous viruses) (a). Abbreviations: AAV = adeno-associated virus; MMV = minute virus of mice, AMDV = Aleutian mink disease virus, PV = parvovirus, CV = circovirus, PCV = porcine circovirus; HSAV =  Human stool-associated circular virus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["structures", "phylogenetic", "relationships", "eves", "ssdna"], "article_id"=>487610, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_structures_and_phylogenetic_relationships_of_EVEs_related_to_ssDNA_viruses_/487610", "title"=>"Genetic structures and phylogenetic relationships of EVEs related to ssDNA viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:06:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817345"], "description"=>"<p>Grey circles indicate nodes at which orthologous EVE insertions were identified. For all orthologous insertions identified here and elsewhere <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191#pgen.1001191-Horie1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191#pgen.1001191-Taylor2\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, the virus family and genomic region represented by the ortholog is shown. Abbreviation: TLS = Thirteen-lined ground squirrel.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "mammals", "screened", "bininda-emonds", "eves", "exogenous"], "article_id"=>487717, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timescaled_phylogenetic_tree_of_mammals_screened_in_this_study_after_Bininda_Emonds_et_al_42_showing_the_known_distribution_of_EVEs_and_of_exogenous_Borna_Filo_Circo_and_Parvoviruses_/487717", "title"=>"Timescaled phylogenetic tree of mammals screened in this study (after Bininda-Emonds <i>et al</i>[<b>42</b>]) showing the known distribution of EVEs and of exogenous Borna-, Filo-, Circo-, and Parvoviruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:08:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817440"], "description"=>"<p>(a) The primate clade marked by an asterisk in the phylogeny shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191#pgen-1001191-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a> is shown in greater detail here, with the number of stop codons in the EBLN-1 locus indicated for seven species. Orthology across these species indicates that EBLN-1 predates the divergence of these species 54 million years ago <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191#pgen.1001191-BinindaEmonds1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>. Monte Carlo simulations in which a consensus EBLN sequence was allowed to neutrally evolve at the primate neutral rate for this length of time showed that the average number of stop codons expected after this time is fifteen. (b) The distribution of the number of stop codons from 100,000 simulation replicates. Confidence intervals are indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ebln", "elements"], "article_id"=>487807, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evolution_of_EBLN_elements_in_primates_/487807", "title"=>"Evolution of EBLN elements in primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:10:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/817513"], "description"=>"<p><b>Footnote:</b> Groups that have been reported as mediating their own integration are highlighted in bold. Asterisks denote families with representatives known to be capable of establishing persistent/latent infection. EVE insertions were considered to represent complete viral genomes or genes if more than 90% of the species-specific gene/genome was identified. Orthologous insertions in distinct species were not counted as distinct elements. Sequences that were identified by BLAST, but where the region used in phylogenetic trees did not match any viral sequences in reciprocal BLAST searches, were defined as unclassifiable. <i><sup>a</sup></i> Numbers in parentheses indicate complete genomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eves"], "article_id"=>487885, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aris Katzourakis", "Robert J. Gifford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001191.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_and_diversity_of_EVEs_identified_by_in_silico_screening_/487885", "title"=>"Distribution and diversity of EVEs identified by <i>in silico</i> screening.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-18 02:11:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"83", "unique-ip"=>"93", "pdf"=>"75", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"35", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"40", "unique-ip"=>"49", "figure"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"43", "unique-ip"=>"47", "pdf"=>"36", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"25", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"6", "full-text"=>"48", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"38", "unique-ip"=>"54", "figure"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"20", "unique-ip"=>"29", "pdf"=>"19", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"28", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"32", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"32", "unique-ip"=>"36", "pdf"=>"24", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"29", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"24", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"29", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"24", "unique-ip"=>"31", "figure"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"33", "unique-ip"=>"35", "pdf"=>"16", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"23", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"28", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"32", "unique-ip"=>"32", "pdf"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"42", "unique-ip"=>"36", "pdf"=>"24", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"29", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"45", "unique-ip"=>"68", "figure"=>"40", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"37", "unique-ip"=>"42", "pdf"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"21", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"28", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"29", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"20", "pdf"=>"14", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"19", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"16", "unique-ip"=>"21", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"22", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"33", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"22", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[288, 576, 733, 867, 984, 1087, 1182, 1267, 1346, 1424, 1501, 1577, 1646, 1711, 1778, 1841, 1908, 1970, 2034, 2102, 2162, 2227, 2296, 2359, 2422, 2482, 2550, 2610, 2679, 2747, 2820, 2887, 2955, 3009, 3067, 3130, 3200, 3257, 3322, 3379, 3443, 3507, 3571, 3632, 3683, 3753, 3822, 3877]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[306, 610, 768, 915, 1043, 1164, 1255, 1349, 1432, 1511, 1592, 1674, 1744, 1817, 1889, 1950, 2028, 2087, 2153, 2217, 2274, 2349, 2418, 2488, 2558, 2616, 2686, 2745, 2809, 2869, 2938, 3008, 3071, 3131, 3189, 3258, 3320, 3389, 3446, 3503, 3552, 3613, 3677, 3744, 3788, 3842, 3907, 3966, 4015]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[306, 616, 785, 930, 1062, 1178, 1267, 1361, 1440, 1545, 1627, 1690, 1764, 1825, 1903, 1965, 2043, 2099, 2172, 2232, 2313, 2376, 2451, 2524, 2595, 2661, 2729, 2781, 2848, 2911, 2974, 3059, 3138, 3196, 3272, 3342, 3408, 3471, 3530, 3601, 3661, 3734, 3803, 3862, 3922, 3966, 4035, 4092, 4165]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[290, 557, 702, 824, 930, 1032, 1119, 1197, 1276, 1347, 1410, 1477, 1539, 1603, 1678, 1741, 1801, 1866, 1930, 1988, 2060, 2117, 2185, 2239, 2300, 2358, 2429, 2486, 2548, 2613, 2693, 2758, 2824, 2891, 2950, 3019, 3093, 3163, 3224, 3284, 3355, 3421, 3486, 3552, 3622, 3684, 3749, 3799, 3859]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts