Morphogenesis and Cell Fate Determination within the Adaxial Cell Equivalence Group of the Zebrafish Myotome
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{"title"=>"Morphogenesis and Cell Fate Determination within the Adaxial Cell Equivalence Group of the Zebrafish Myotome", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mai E.", "last_name"=>"Nguyen-Chi", "scopus_author_id"=>"23985485200"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Bryson-Richardson", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507924982"}, {"first_name"=>"Carmen", "last_name"=>"Sonntag", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003892652"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas E.", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"8758255300"}, {"first_name"=>"Abigail", "last_name"=>"Gibson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202353614"}, {"first_name"=>"Tamar", "last_name"=>"Sztal", "scopus_author_id"=>"20434733900"}, {"first_name"=>"Wendy", "last_name"=>"Chua", "scopus_author_id"=>"55441033100"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas F.", "last_name"=>"Schilling", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004937463"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter D.", "last_name"=>"Currie", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102466249"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537390", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868125257", "pui"=>"365953626", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84868125257", "pmid"=>"23133395"}, "id"=>"56de2c26-3789-3236-881a-5efe6056697b", "abstract"=>"One of the central questions of developmental biology is how cells of equivalent potential-an equivalence group-come to adopt specific cellular fates. In this study we have used a combination of live imaging, single cell lineage analyses, and perturbation of specific signaling pathways to dissect the specification of the adaxial cells of the zebrafish embryo. We show that the adaxial cells are myogenic precursors that form a cell fate equivalence group of approximately 20 cells that consequently give rise to two distinct sub-types of muscle fibers: the superficial slow muscle fibers (SSFs) and muscle pioneer cells (MPs), distinguished by specific gene expression and cell behaviors. Using a combination of live imaging, retrospective and indicative fate mapping, and genetic studies, we show that MP and SSF precursors segregate at the beginning of segmentation and that they arise from distinct regions along the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the adaxial cell compartment. FGF signaling restricts MP cell fate in the anterior-most adaxial cells in each somite, while BMP signaling restricts this fate to the middle of the DV axis. Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/morphogenesis-cell-fate-determination-within-adaxial-cell-equivalence-group-zebrafish-myotome", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553253"], "description"=>"<p><i>Erm</i> (A), <i>pea3</i> (B) and <i>spry4</i> (C) expressions in 10–13-somite embryos after DMSO or SU5402 treatments as determined by <i>in situ</i> hybridization. (D) sMyHC (green) and (E) Eng (black) expression in transverse sections of 1 dpf embryos, after treatment with DMSO or SU5402 applied at the 6-somite stage. (F) <i>eng2a</i> expression at 10-somite after treatment with DMSO or SU5402, as determined by ISH (Dorsal view, anterior towards the left). (G–J) Expression of a dominant negative form of fgfr1 fused with GFP (green) (G) is induced after heat shock in <i>hsp70l:dnfgfr1-GFP</i> embryos at 13–15-somite stage. (H) Expression of the target gene of FGF signaling cascade, diphosphorylated ERK (dpERK, red), which is down regulated in 13–15 somite embryos after heat shock compared to no heat shocked control. By contrast (I) <i>eng2a</i> is up-regulated at 1 dph after heat shock as revealed by ISH and (J) slow fibre migration is impaired, as revealed by 3D reconstructed sMyHC expression (lateral view and cross section). (K) Graphic representation of the number of MPs per somite in 1 dpf embryos after treatment with DMSO or SU5402 applied at the 10-somite stage. The horizontal axis represents the position of the somite along the body axis, 1 being the most rostral somite, values = means, error bars = standard error of the mean (s.e.m.). (L–Q) Ectopic expression of <i>spry4, dn-spry4</i> or <i>dn-BMPr</i> in slow precursors was obtained after injection of (L, N, O, O′, O″) <i>smyhc:spry4-ires-GFP</i>, (L, P) <i>smyhc:dn-spry4-ires-GFP and</i> (L, Q) <i>smyhc:dn-BMPr-GFP</i> DNA constructs into one cell embryo, respectively. (L, M) <i>smyhc:GFP</i> construct was used as the injection control. (L) Graphic representation of the different fates of transgenic slow fiber (SSF, MP and SSF en<sup>+</sup>) upon ectopic expression of <i>GFP, spry4</i>, <i>dnspry4</i> or <i>dnBMPr.</i> Values = means of percentages of transgenic muscle fibers per injected embryo (n<sub>embryo</sub> = 6–9 per condition). We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine statistical difference within a 95% confidence interval: ** p&lt;0.005, ***p&lt;0.001. (M–Q) Images reveal the expression of GFP (green) and Eng (red) in the somites of 1 dpf embryos by maximum projections of multiple confocal scans (M, N, P, Q) or single confocal scan (O–O″). SSFs (arrow heads) and MPs (*) are indicated. (O–O″) In 4.19% of cases, the <i>spry4</i> transgene triggers expression of Engrailed in post-migratory slow fibers (arrows, p&lt;0.05). (O′, O″) high magnification of the region boxed in O. Scale bar = 25 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fgf", "inhibition"], "article_id"=>223744, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_sprouty4_i_mediated_FGF_inhibition_promotes_muscle_pioneer_formation_/223744", "title"=>"<i>sprouty4</i>-mediated FGF inhibition promotes muscle pioneer formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:02:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553003"], "description"=>"<p>The fate of individual adaxial cells were identified using iontophoretic injections of TMRD (red) into individual adaxial cells located at various AP (C–E) and DV (F–J) positions within the three most newly formed somites of 10–15-somite stage embryos (C–J, left panels, dorsal views). The AP (A) and DV (B) position of labeled cells is represented schematically. The fate of cells was then analyzed at 30 hpf (C–J, other panels). (C–J) At 30 hpf, the panels (from the left to the right) represent the position of the labeled fiber in the myotome (lateral view), the expression of sMyHC (green, 3D reconstruction of multiple confocal scans) in lateral view and in cross section, and the expression of Engrailed (green, small upper panels for C and H, lateral view). MPs (C, H) were identified due to their position in the midline and simultaneous expression of Slow MyHC and Eng.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adaxial"], "article_id"=>223493, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_fate_map_of_the_adaxial_compartment_/223493", "title"=>"The fate map of the adaxial compartment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 00:58:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/552815"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) The adaxial cell compartment. (A) Cross-section and (B) single confocal scan, dorsal view of a newly formed somite where the adaxial cells express the sMyHC (red). Nuclei and membranes are also marked with DAPI (blue) and membrane-bound GFP (green). (C–M) Restrospective fate map of the adaxial cell compartment. Adaxial cell behaviors occurring during the first phase of differentiation were analyzed in time lapse using a membrane-bound GFP (green) and a nuclear localized mCherry (red). The anterior-most adaxial cells in the dorso-ventral midline (yellow dot) are the first to differentiate and elongate. Adaxial cells above and below remain undifferentiated. The positions of individual confocal planes on the dorso-ventral axis are represented in (C). (N–Q) <i>eng2a</i> expression initiates in anterior adaxial cells at the dorso ventral midline of the myotome. 10-somite stage embryos on which <i>in situ</i> hybridization (ISH) for <i>eng2a</i> was performed alone (Blue, N, P) or in combination with <i>myoD</i> (Red, O,) that marks the posterior somitic region and the adaxial cells. Arrows indicate <i>eng2a</i> expression in the anterior adaxial cells. (Q) <i>In situ</i> hybridisation for <i>smyhc</i> demonstrates the location of the adaxial cells. (N, O) dorsal view, anterior toward the left, (P, Q) cross sections. Scale bar 50 µM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precursor", "populations", "adaxial"], "article_id"=>223303, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Distinct_muscle_precursor_populations_within_the_adaxial_compartment_/223303", "title"=>"Distinct muscle precursor populations within the adaxial compartment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 00:55:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295125", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295178", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295278", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295307", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295371", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295414", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295471", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/295546"], "description"=>"<div><p>One of the central questions of developmental biology is how cells of equivalent potential—an equivalence group—come to adopt specific cellular fates. In this study we have used a combination of live imaging, single cell lineage analyses, and perturbation of specific signaling pathways to dissect the specification of the adaxial cells of the zebrafish embryo. We show that the adaxial cells are myogenic precursors that form a cell fate equivalence group of approximately 20 cells that consequently give rise to two distinct sub-types of muscle fibers: the superficial slow muscle fibers (SSFs) and muscle pioneer cells (MPs), distinguished by specific gene expression and cell behaviors. Using a combination of live imaging, retrospective and indicative fate mapping, and genetic studies, we show that MP and SSF precursors segregate at the beginning of segmentation and that they arise from distinct regions along the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the adaxial cell compartment. FGF signaling restricts MP cell fate in the anterior-most adaxial cells in each somite, while BMP signaling restricts this fate to the middle of the DV axis. Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphogenesis", "adaxial", "equivalence", "zebrafish", "myotome"], "article_id"=>118127, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>[nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Morphogenesis_and_Cell_Fate_Determination_within_the_Adaxial_Cell_Equivalence_Group_of_the_Zebrafish_Myotome/118127", "title"=>"Morphogenesis and Cell Fate Determination within the Adaxial Cell Equivalence Group of the Zebrafish Myotome", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 02:15:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553398"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sequencing of <i>spry4<sup>WT</sup></i> and <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> confirms the single A to T mutation in position 469 of the <i>spry4</i> ORF, resulting in the premature stop codon. (B) Predicted peptide arising from <i>spry4<sup>WT</sup></i> and <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup>.</i> The mutation results in a truncated protein of 157 amino acids (K157 in red is replaced by a stop codon) lacking the conserved cysteine rich domain <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014#pgen.1003014-Furthauer1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a> also called the <i>spry</i> domain (blue). This domain has been involved in RTK inhibition in other systems. (C–F) <i>spry4</i> expression at 10-somite in WT, <i>spry4<sup>fh117/+</sup></i>, Z <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> and MZ <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> embryos as determined by <i>in situ</i> hybridization. Whole mounted embryos, lateral view. (G–H) <i>Erm</i> expression in 9-somite WT and MZ <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> embryos. Flat mounted embryos, anterior toward the top. (I–J) sMyhc expression (red) in the somites of (I) WT and (J) MZ <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> embryos at 1 dpf. Maximal projection of multiple confocal scans, lateral view. (K) Graphic representation of the number of MPs per somite of 1 dpf embryos in different conditions: WT, <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i>/+, and MZ <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> untreated embryos or after DMSO or SU5402 treatments, values = means, error bars = s.e.m, ***p&lt;0.001. (L–O) Engrailed (green) and Prox1 (red) expression in the somites of 1 dpf WT or MZ <i>spry4<sup>fh117</sup></i> embryos, after DMSO or SU5402 treatments, scale bar = 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["loss-of-function", "leads", "mp"], "article_id"=>223888, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_sprouty4_i_loss_of_function_leads_to_the_reduction_of_MP_formation_/223888", "title"=>"<i>sprouty4</i> loss-of-function leads to the reduction of MP formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:04:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553725"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The level of expression of spliced radar and β-actin mRNAs was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Total RNA extracts were prepared at 1 dpf from uninjected embryos and from embryos that were injected with morpholinos blocking the splicing of radar (<i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i>). The number of cycles is shown. (B) Graphic representation of the number of MPs per somite at 1 dpf in the indicated conditions, values = mean, error bars = s.e.m., ***p&lt;0.001. (C–D) <i>eng2a</i> expression at the 12-somite stage in (C) uninjected, or (D) <i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i>-injected embryos, as determined by ISH. (E–J) MPs staining with anti-Eng (green) and anti-Prox1 (red) antibodies at 1 dpf embryos in (E) uninjected, (F) <i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i>-injected embryos, (G) <i>p53<sup>M</sup></i><sup>O</sup>- and <i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i>-injected embryos, (H) radar mutant (<i>rdr<sup>s327</sup></i>), (I) Dorsomorphin (DM) treated embryos and (J) SU5402-treated embryos that were injected with <i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i>, scale bar = 20 µm. (K–M) sMyhc (red) expression in the somites of (K) WT, (L) radar morphans and (M) P53/radar double morphans (rdr<sup>MO</sup>/P53<sup>MO</sup>) at 1 dpf, 3D reconstructions of multiple confocal scans, lateral and cross section views, scale bar = 20 µm. (N–Q) <i>Eng2a</i> expression in the somites of 1 dpf embryos after treatment with increasing doses of Dorsomorphin (10, 20 and 50 µM) or with DMSO (1%), scale bar 100 µm. (R–S) GFP expression in Tg(5XBRE[vent2]:-20lid3:GFP) embryos at 60 hpf after (S) DM (50 µM) or (R) DMSO (1%) treatments, showing that DM treatment inhibits BMP signaling. (T–W) <i>Eng2a</i> expression in 1 dpf embryos that were (U–W) injected or (T–V) not with <i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i> and treated with either (T–U) DMSO or (V–W) SU5402.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bmp", "signaling", "knock-down", "impairs", "mp"], "article_id"=>224212, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Radar_or_BMP_signaling_knock_down_impairs_MP_formation_/224212", "title"=>"Radar or BMP signaling knock-down impairs MP formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:10:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553984"], "description"=>"<p>The diagram represents the adaxial compartment in the zebrafish somite, adjacent to the notochord (n), at the beginning of segmentation. The anterior-posterior (A/P) and dorsal-dentral (D/V) axes are shown. The adaxial cell pool is initially specified by HH signal transduction from the embryonic axial structure. Spry4-mediated regional inhibition of FGF restricts the MP fate to the most anterior adaxial cells. By contrast, the absence of Radar-mediated-BMP signaling at the dorso-ventral mid-point of the somite restricts MP fate at the dorso-ventral mid-point of the myotome. The combination of the three signals forms a 3-D patterning system that coordinates the specification of adaxial cells into muscle pioneer cells and superficial slow fibers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synergic", "fgf", "bmp", "signaling", "adaxial"], "article_id"=>224472, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Model_of_the_synergic_action_of_FGF_and_BMP_signaling_on_adaxial_cell_specification_/224472", "title"=>"Model of the synergic action of FGF and BMP signaling on adaxial cell specification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:14:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553883"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Individual adaxial cells located in the posterior region of the adaxial cells at various D/V positions were labeled according to the diagram. (B–C–D) The fate of the adaxial cells after treatment of SU5402 alone or (E) in combination with Dorsomorphin (DM) was followed using iontophoretic injections of TMRD (red) within the newly formed somites of 10- to 15-somite embryos (left panels, dorsal views). Their fate was analyzed using anti-Engrailed antibody staining (green) at 30 hpf (right panels, lateral views).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bmp", "signaling", "coordinates", "adaxial"], "article_id"=>224372, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/FGF_and_BMP_signaling_coordinates_the_fate_of_adaxial_cells_/224372", "title"=>"FGF and BMP signaling coordinates the fate of adaxial cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:12:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553123"], "description"=>"<p>(A–B) Asymmetric expression of <i>erm</i> at 9-somites as determined by ISH on (B–B″) serial sagittal sections and (A) cross-section. Panel (B′*) represents a high magnification of the region in box in (B′) panel. The different positions of sagittal sections are represented in (A). Expression of <i>erm</i> is absent in anterior adaxial cells (arrow heads). (C) <i>spry4</i> expression in a 9-somite embryo determined by ISH on a cross section of the anterior somitic region. (D–D‴) Expression of <i>spry4</i> mRNA (D′, red), sMyHC (D″, green) and DAPI (D–D‴, blue) in 9-somite embryos, dorsal view. <i>spry4</i> expression in the anterior adaxial cells is indicated (arrow heads). D′–D‴ high magnification view of the area boxed in D.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["signaling", "regulated", "precursor"], "article_id"=>223612, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/FGF_signaling_is_down_regulated_in_muscle_pioneer_precursor_domain_/223612", "title"=>"FGF signaling is down regulated in muscle pioneer precursor domain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:00:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/553577"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B, C, D, E) Expression of GFP (green) and sMyHC (red) at indicated stages in Tg(<i>5XBre[vent2]:-201id3:gfp</i>) embryos uninjected or (E) after <i>radar</i> morpholino (<i>rdr<sup>MO</sup></i>) injection. (F) Expression of phosphorylated-Smad5 (green) and nuclei (DAPI, blue) in 15-somite WT embryos. (G) Engrailed (red) and GFP (green) expression in Tg(<i>5XBre[vent2]:-201id3:gfp</i>) embryos at 20-somites. Cross-sections, maximum projections of multiple confocal scans. Scale bar 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["signaling", "forms", "dorsal", "ventral", "gradient"], "article_id"=>224063, "categories"=>["Developmental Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Mai E. Nguyen-Chi", "Robert Bryson-Richardson", "Carmen Sonntag", "Thomas E. Hall", "Abigail Gibson", "Tamar Sztal", "Wendy Chua", "Thomas F. Schilling", "Peter D. Currie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003014.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/BMP_signaling_forms_a_dorsal_and_ventral_gradient_within_the_myotome_/224063", "title"=>"BMP signaling forms a dorsal and ventral gradient within the myotome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-25 01:07:43"}

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Relative Metric

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