Population Genomics of Sub-Saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African Diversity and Non-African Admixture
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{"title"=>"Population Genomics of Sub-Saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African Diversity and Non-African Admixture", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John E.", "last_name"=>"Pool", "scopus_author_id"=>"12767156600"}, {"first_name"=>"Russell B.", "last_name"=>"Corbett-Detig", "scopus_author_id"=>"54386585100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryuichi P.", "last_name"=>"Sugino", "scopus_author_id"=>"8931783400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristian A.", "last_name"=>"Stevens", "scopus_author_id"=>"8239203700"}, {"first_name"=>"Charis M.", "last_name"=>"Cardeno", "scopus_author_id"=>"54386499000"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc W.", "last_name"=>"Crepeau", "scopus_author_id"=>"24079982600"}, {"first_name"=>"Pablo", "last_name"=>"Duchen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35181130100"}, {"first_name"=>"J. 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We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. 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Figshare

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However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of <em>D. melanogaster</em>, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. 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Outliers for Europe-Africa <em>F<sub>ST</sub></em> were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally elevated cosmopolitan admixture, possibly reflecting a role for some of these loci in driving the introgression of non-African alleles into African populations.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genomics", "sub-saharan", "african", "non-african", "admixture"], "article_id"=>115770, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.s027"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Population_Genomics_of_Sub_Saharan_Drosophila_melanogaster_African_Diversity_and_Non_African_Admixture__/115770", "title"=>"Population Genomics of Sub-Saharan <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>: African Diversity and Non-African Admixture", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 01:36:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520055"], "description"=>"<p>Each population sample is indicated by a two letter abbreviation followed by the number of primary core genomes sequenced. For populations with secondary core genomes, that number follows a comma. Additional data and sample characteristics are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080#pgen.1003080.s009\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samples", "genomes"], "article_id"=>190539, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_population_samples_from_which_the_analyzed_genomes_were_derived_/190539", "title"=>"Locations of population samples from which the analyzed genomes were derived.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:08:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520138"], "description"=>"<p>Mean sequencing depth is correlated with genetic distance (A) and genomic coverage (B). African core genomes with data from all major chromosome arms are depicted. The effect of depth on genetic distance applies whether genomes are compared to the published reference genome (blue) or the Zambia ZI population sample (red). Subsequent analyses focused largely on “primary core” genomes with >25X depth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sequencing"], "article_id"=>190620, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_sequencing_depth_/190620", "title"=>"Mean sequencing depth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:10:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520193"], "description"=>"<p>Heterogeneity in estimated cosmopolitan admixture proportions, both among African populations (A) and within the Rwanda RG population sample (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cosmopolitan", "admixture"], "article_id"=>190677, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heterogeneity_in_estimated_cosmopolitan_admixture_proportions_/190677", "title"=>"Heterogeneity in estimated cosmopolitan admixture proportions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:11:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520267"], "description"=>"<p>For each genomic window, the number of African primary core genomes (across all populations) with >50% admixture probability is plotted. Chromosome arms are labeled and indicated by color. Each window contains 1000 RG non-singleton SNPs (approximately 50 kb on average).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["admixture", "levels", "depicted"], "article_id"=>190758, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cosmopolitan_admixture_levels_are_depicted_across_the_genome_/190758", "title"=>"Cosmopolitan admixture levels are depicted across the genome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:12:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520354"], "description"=>"<p>(A) PCA was done for the full primary core data set before and after masking putative cosmopolitan admixture from sub-Saharan genomes. Reductions in the magnitude of PC1 after filtering are consistent with the admixture identification method being largely successful. (B) PCA was applied to the sub-Saharan genomes only, after admixture filtering. Genomes were found to cluster by geographical region, including southern (SP, TZ, ZI, ZL, ZO, ZS), eastern (CK, RC, RG, UG, UM), and western (CO, GA, GU, NG) African groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["components"], "article_id"=>190843, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_Components_Analysis_PCA_/190843", "title"=>"Principal Components Analysis (PCA).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:14:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520487"], "description"=>"<p>This method allowed the comparison of diversity between populations with missing data in different genomic regions, and allowed the inclusion of secondary core genomes. Values were corrected for the modest predicted effects of sequencing depth (see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>), and were based on non-centromeric, non-telomeric chromosomal regions, and equal weighting of chromosome arms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nucleotide", "scaled", "was", "calculated"], "article_id"=>190973, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_nucleotide_diversity_scaled_by_RG_was_calculated_for_each_population_sample_/190973", "title"=>"Relative nucleotide diversity, scaled by <i>π<sub>RG</sub></i>, was calculated for each population sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:16:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520590"], "description"=>"<p>Each window contains 5000 RG non-singleton SNPs. Chromosome arms are labeled and indicated by color. Dashed series for the three arms with segregating inversions in the FR sample reflect diversity ratios for standard chromosomes only, indicating that inversions add significant diversity at the scale of whole chromosome arms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nucleotide", "non-african", "african"], "article_id"=>191073, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ratio_of_nucleotide_diversity_between_non_African_France_FR_and_African_Rwanda_RG_genomes_/191073", "title"=>"The ratio of nucleotide diversity between non-African (France, FR) and African (Rwanda, RG) genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:17:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520667"], "description"=>"<p>Red dot indicates root based on midpoint rooting. Branch lengths are not to scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neighbor-joining", "matrix"], "article_id"=>191154, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Topology_of_a_neighbor_joining_population_distance_tree_based_on_the_matrix_of_D_xy_values_Table_2_/191154", "title"=>"Topology of a neighbor-joining population distance tree based on the matrix of <i>D<sub>xy</sub></i> values (Table 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:19:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520763"], "description"=>"<p>Recombination rate estimates are from Langley et al. (2011), multiplied by one half for autosomes and two thirds for the X chromosome, and weighted by cytological sub-band recombination rate estimates and site counts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recombination", "intron", "sites", "bp", "plotted", "cytological"], "article_id"=>191243, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nucleotide_diversity_versus_recombination_rate_for_short_intron_sites_bp_8_8211_30_in_lt_65_bp_introns_is_plotted_by_cytological_band_/191243", "title"=>"Nucleotide diversity versus recombination rate for short intron sites (bp 8–30 in <65 bp introns) is plotted by cytological band.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:20:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520841"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The folded frequency spectrum for each chromosome arm. (B) Comparison of the proportion of SNPs with a minor allele count of 1 in regions of lower versus higher recombination.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies", "rg", "intron"], "article_id"=>191325, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Allele_frequencies_for_the_RG_sample_using_a_sample_size_of_18_at_short_intron_sites_/191325", "title"=>"Allele frequencies for the RG sample (using a sample size of 18) at short intron sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:22:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520928"], "description"=>"<p>Series refer to the observed LD for each major chromosome arm, and the expected LD from neutral equilibrium simulations for X-linked and autosomal loci, as given in panel A. (A) Average <i>r<sup>2</sup></i> for a series of SNP pair distance bins. (B) Average <i>r<sub>ω</sub></i> for SNP pairs with positive LD. (C) Average <i>r<sub>ω</sub></i> for SNP pairs with negative LD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disequilibrium", "excluding", "singleton"], "article_id"=>191413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linkage_disequilibrium_LD_excluding_singleton_polymorphisms_/191413", "title"=>"Linkage disequilibrium (LD), excluding singleton polymorphisms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521008"], "description"=>"<p>Values above the diagonal represent <i>D<sub>xy</sub></i> (in percent), while those below reflect <i>F<sub>ST</sub></i>. Bold values on the diagonal are <i>π</i> (%). The ratio of each population's genetic distance to the ZI sample versus diversity with the ZI sample is also given (bottom row). Ratios were corrected based on the (minor) predicted effects of sequencing depth for each population (see <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). Ratios significantly greater than one (bootstrapping <i>P</i><0.001) are noted (*). Admixture-filtered data from genomes with less than 15% estimated admixture were analyzed for each population that had two or more such genomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "averaged", "non-telomeric", "regions", "chromosome"], "article_id"=>191491, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nucleotide_diversity_and_genetic_differentiation_are_shown_averaged_across_the_non_centromeric_non_telomeric_regions_of_each_chromosome_arm_/191491", "title"=>"Nucleotide diversity and genetic differentiation are shown, averaged across the non-centromeric, non-telomeric regions of each chromosome arm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:24:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521050"], "description"=>"<p>Listed are GO categories with <i>P</i><0.01 and outlier genes >3. Full results are given in .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontology", "enrichment", "outlier", "windows", "rwanda", "rg", "targets", "selective"], "article_id"=>191528, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_ontology_enrichment_analysis_based_on_outlier_windows_for_high_max_in_the_Rwanda_RG_sample_indicating_potential_targets_of_recent_selective_sweeps_/191528", "title"=>"Gene ontology enrichment analysis based on outlier windows for high <i>Λ<sub>max</sub></i> in the Rwanda RG sample, indicating potential targets of recent selective sweeps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:25:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521092"], "description"=>"<p>Data consisted of non-centromeric, non-telomeric regions, with putatively admixed regions masked from African genomes. For the FR sample, values in parentheses reflect the exclusion of inverted chromosomes.</p>*<p>denotes a value based on comparisons between primary and secondary core genomes.</p>**<p>indicates arms for which diversity could not be estimated due to a lack of non-masked data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nucleotide", "rg", "chromosome", "arms"], "article_id"=>191579, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_nucleotide_diversity_versus_the_RG_sample_for_each_population_sample_is_given_for_chromosome_arms_and_the_average_of_arms_/191579", "title"=>"Relative nucleotide diversity (versus the RG sample) for each population sample is given for chromosome arms and the average of arms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:26:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521123"], "description"=>"<p>Listed are GO categories with <i>P</i><0.05 and outlier genes >1. Full results are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080#pgen.1003080.s024\" target=\"_blank\">Table S16</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontology", "enrichment", "outlier", "windows", "african"], "article_id"=>191606, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_ontology_enrichment_analysis_based_on_outlier_windows_for_high_mean_F_ST_for_African_population_comparisons_/191606", "title"=>"Gene ontology enrichment analysis based on outlier windows for high mean <i>F<sub>ST</sub></i> for African population comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:26:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521157"], "description"=>"<p>Listed are GO categories with <i>P</i><0.05 and outlier genes >1. Full results are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080#pgen.1003080.s026\" target=\"_blank\">Table S18</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontology", "enrichment", "outlier", "windows", "rwanda", "france"], "article_id"=>191638, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John E. Pool", "Russell B. Corbett-Detig", "Ryuichi P. Sugino", "Kristian A. Stevens", "Charis M. Cardeno", "Marc W. Crepeau", "Pablo Duchen", "J. J. Emerson", "Perot Saelao", "David J. Begun", "Charles H. Langley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003080.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_ontology_enrichment_analysis_based_on_outlier_windows_for_high_F_ST_between_Rwanda_and_France_population_samples_/191638", "title"=>"Gene ontology enrichment analysis based on outlier windows for high <i>F<sub>ST</sub></i> between Rwanda and France population samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:27:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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