Measuring Under-Five Mortality: Validation of New Low-Cost Methods
Publication Date
April 13, 2010
Journal
PLOS Medicine
Authors
Julie Knoll Rajaratnam, Linda N. Tran, Alan D. Lopez & Christopher J. L. Murray
Volume
7
Issue
4
Pages
e1000253
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000253
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20405055
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854123
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20405055
Web of Science
000277239500017
Scopus
77951722876
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/measuring-underfive-mortality-validation-new-lowcost-methods
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Measuring under-five mortality: Validation of new low-cost methods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julie Knoll", "last_name"=>"Rajaratnam", "scopus_author_id"=>"35932745800"}, {"first_name"=>"Linda N.", "last_name"=>"Tran", "scopus_author_id"=>"36070805800"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan D.", "last_name"=>"Lopez", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401455668"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.L.", "last_name"=>"Murray", "scopus_author_id"=>"55481130700"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"358744953", "issn"=>"15491277", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\n1549-1277 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77951722876", "pmid"=>"20405055", "sgr"=>"77951722876"}, "keywords"=>["CD/CEB, children dead to children ever born", "CI, confidence interval", "DHS, Demographic and Health Survey", "MAC, maternal age cohort-derived method", "MAP, maternal age period-derived method", "TFBC, time since first birth cohort-derived method", "TFBP, time since first birth period-derived method"], "id"=>"eaca319d-244d-3fe7-a07f-8887a69bbc33", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in measuring under-five mortality as a health indicator and as a critical measure of human development. In countries with complete vital registration systems that capture all births and deaths, under-five mortality can be directly calculated. In the absence of a complete vital registration system, however, child mortality must be estimated using surveys that ask women to report the births and deaths of their children. Two survey methods exist for capturing this information: summary birth histories and complete birth histories. A summary birth history requires a minimum of only two questions: how many live births has each mother had and how many of them have survived. Indirect methods are then applied using the information from these two questions and the age of the mother to estimate under-five mortality going back in time prior to the survey. Estimates generated from complete birth histories are viewed as the most accurate when surveys are required to estimate under-five mortality, especially for the most recent time periods. However, it is much more costly and labor intensive to collect these detailed data, especially for the purpose of generating small area estimates. As a result, there is a demand for improvement of the methods employing summary birth history data to produce more accurate as well as subnational estimates of child mortality.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 166 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to develop new empirically based methods of estimating under-five mortality using children ever born and children dead data. We then validated them using both in- and out-of-sample analyses. We developed a range of methods on the basis of three dimensions of the problem: (1) approximating the average length of exposure to mortality from a mother's set of children using either maternal age or time since first birth; (2) using cohort and period measures of the fraction of children ever born that are dead; and (3) capturing country and regional variation in the age pattern of fertility and mortality. We focused on improving estimates in the most recent time periods prior to a survey where the traditional indirect methods fail. In addition, all of our methods incorporated uncertainty. Validated against under-five estimates generated from complete birth histories, our methods outperformed the standard indirect method by an average of 43.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.2-45.2). In the 5 y prior to the survey, the new methods resulted in a 53.3% (95% CI 51.3-55.2) improvement. To illustrate the value of this method for local area estimation, we applied our new methods to an analysis of summary birth histories in the 1990, 2000, and 2005 Mexican censuses, generating subnational estimates of under-five mortality for each of 233 jurisdictions.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The new methods significantly improve the estimation of under-five mortality using summary birth history data. In areas without vital registration data, summary birth histories can provide accurate estimates of child mortality. Because only two questions are required of a female respondent to generate these data, they can easily be included in existing survey programs as well as routine censuses of the population. With the wider application of these methods to census data, countries now have the means to generate estimates for subnational areas and population subgroups, important for measuring and addressing health inequalities and developing local policy to improve child survival. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/measuring-underfive-mortality-validation-new-lowcost-methods", "reader_count"=>98, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>36, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>20}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>36}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>20}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Uganda"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "South Africa"=>3, "Kenya"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856650"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>527104, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_II_Rwanda_2001_/527104", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section II, Rwanda, 2001.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:58:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855814"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard derived from complete birth histories is also shown. The six examples in Figures 7-<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a> represent different levels of performance of the Combined method, in order from best to worst.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories"], "article_id"=>526272, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_using_MAP_MAC_TFBP_TFBC_and_Combined_method_Nigeria_2003_/526272", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories using MAP, MAC, TFBP, TFBC, and Combined method. Nigeria, 2003.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:44:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856395"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (Figures 17–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>526851, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_II_Jordan_1998_/526851", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section II, Jordan, 1998.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:54:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857036"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates generated by complete birth histories from a single survey are also compared to the validation dataset. The top section of each panel represents the in-sample performance, and the bottom section is the average out-of-sample performance across all five hold-out groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods", "deviation"], "article_id"=>527492, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g023", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_MAC_TFBC_MAP_TFBP_and_combined_methods_as_measured_by_standard_deviation_of_residuals_/527492", "title"=>"Performance of MAC, TFBC, MAP, TFBP, and combined methods as measured by standard deviation of residuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:04:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856208"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>526664, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_I_Bolivia_1998_/526664", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section I, Bolivia, 1998.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:51:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/854546"], "description"=>"<p>Classification of four new methods to generate estimates of under-five mortality from summary birth history data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods", "estimates", "under-five"], "article_id"=>525004, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Classification_of_four_new_methods_to_generate_estimates_of_under_five_mortality_from_summary_birth_history_data_/525004", "title"=>"Classification of four new methods to generate estimates of under-five mortality from summary birth history data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:23:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/424944", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/424954", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/424977", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/424985"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>There has been increasing interest in measuring under-five mortality as a health indicator and as a critical measure of human development. In countries with complete vital registration systems that capture all births and deaths, under-five mortality can be directly calculated. In the absence of a complete vital registration system, however, child mortality must be estimated using surveys that ask women to report the births and deaths of their children. Two survey methods exist for capturing this information: summary birth histories and complete birth histories. A summary birth history requires a minimum of only two questions: how many live births has each mother had and how many of them have survived. Indirect methods are then applied using the information from these two questions and the age of the mother to estimate under-five mortality going back in time prior to the survey. Estimates generated from complete birth histories are viewed as the most accurate when surveys are required to estimate under-five mortality, especially for the most recent time periods. However, it is much more costly and labor intensive to collect these detailed data, especially for the purpose of generating small area estimates. As a result, there is a demand for improvement of the methods employing summary birth history data to produce more accurate as well as subnational estimates of child mortality.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We used data from 166 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to develop new empirically based methods of estimating under-five mortality using children ever born and children dead data. We then validated them using both in- and out-of-sample analyses. We developed a range of methods on the basis of three dimensions of the problem: (1) approximating the average length of exposure to mortality from a mother's set of children using either maternal age or time since first birth; (2) using cohort and period measures of the fraction of children ever born that are dead; and (3) capturing country and regional variation in the age pattern of fertility and mortality. We focused on improving estimates in the most recent time periods prior to a survey where the traditional indirect methods fail. In addition, all of our methods incorporated uncertainty. Validated against under-five estimates generated from complete birth histories, our methods outperformed the standard indirect method by an average of 43.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.2–45.2). In the 5 y prior to the survey, the new methods resulted in a 53.3% (95% CI 51.3–55.2) improvement. To illustrate the value of this method for local area estimation, we applied our new methods to an analysis of summary birth histories in the 1990, 2000, and 2005 Mexican censuses, generating subnational estimates of under-five mortality for each of 233 jurisdictions.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The new methods significantly improve the estimation of under-five mortality using summary birth history data. In areas without vital registration data, summary birth histories can provide accurate estimates of child mortality. Because only two questions are required of a female respondent to generate these data, they can easily be included in existing survey programs as well as routine censuses of the population. With the wider application of these methods to census data, countries now have the means to generate estimates for subnational areas and population subgroups, important for measuring and addressing health inequalities and developing local policy to improve child survival.</p><h3></h3><p><em>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</em></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measuring", "under-five", "validation", "low-cost", "methods"], "article_id"=>143882, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>26, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Measuring_Under_Five_Mortality_Validation_of_New_Low_Cost_Methods/143882", "title"=>"Measuring Under-Five Mortality: Validation of New Low-Cost Methods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857304"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of under-five mortality by jurisdiction in Mexico, using the combined method approach of applying Loess regression to MAP and MAC estimates from the 1990, 2000, and 2005 censuses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "applying", "loess", "regression", "mac", "estimates", "2005"], "article_id"=>527756, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g025", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_by_jurisdiction_in_Mexico_using_the_combined_method_approach_of_applying_Loess_regression_to_MAP_and_MAC_estimates_from_the_1990_2000_and_2005_censuses_/527756", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality by jurisdiction in Mexico, using the combined method approach of applying Loess regression to MAP and MAC estimates from the 1990, 2000, and 2005 censuses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:09:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856732"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates generated by complete birth histories from a single survey are also compared to the validation dataset. The top section of each panel represents the in-sample performance, and the bottom section is the average out-of-sample performance across all five hold-out groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods"], "article_id"=>527192, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_MAC_TFBC_MAP_TFBP_and_combined_methods_as_measured_by_average_relative_error_/527192", "title"=>"Performance of MAC, TFBC, MAP, TFBP, and combined methods as measured by average relative error.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:59:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855446"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard derived from complete birth histories is also shown. The six examples in Figures 7-<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a> represent different levels of performance of the Combined method, in order from best to worst.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories"], "article_id"=>525907, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_using_MAP_MAC_TFBP_TFBC_and_Combined_method_Ghana_1994_/525907", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories using MAP, MAC, TFBP, TFBC, and Combined method. Ghana, 1994.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:38:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856545"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>527000, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_II_Zimbabwe_2000_/527000", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section II, Zimbabwe, 2000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:56:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857162"], "description"=>"<p>Summary birth history estimates are calibrated to national-level estimates from Murray et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed.1000253-Murray1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories", "censuses", "mexico"], "article_id"=>527620, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g024", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_from_three_censuses_1990_2000_2005_in_Mexico_using_MAP_MAC_and_the_combined_methods_/527620", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories from three censuses (1990, 2000, 2005) in Mexico using MAP, MAC, and the combined methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:07:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855069"], "description"=>"<p>The relationship for the period measure of CD/CEB for four periods prior to the survey is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bivariate", "children", "logit"], "article_id"=>525530, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_bivariate_relationship_between_child_mortality_and_the_ratio_of_children_dead_to_children_ever_born_after_logit_transformation_/525530", "title"=>"The bivariate relationship between child mortality and the ratio of children dead to children ever born after logit transformation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:32:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857431"], "description"=>"<p>Note that in all regressions, both the dependent and independent variables are transformed using the logit transformation.</p>a<p> where <i>i</i> = group, <i>j</i> = country, <i>k</i> = survey,  = true value for group <i>ijk</i>,  = predicted <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> value for group <i>ijk</i>, and  = average value for group <i>i</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["map-derived", "relating", "under-five", "period-computed"], "article_id"=>527884, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_results_for_MAP_derived_method_relating_under_five_mortality_to_the_period_computed_ratio_of_CD_CEB_/527884", "title"=>"Regression results for MAP-derived method relating under-five mortality to the period-computed ratio of CD/CEB.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:11:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855333"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard derived from complete birth histories is also shown. The six examples in Figures 7-<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a> represent different levels of performance of the Combined method, in order from best to worst.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories"], "article_id"=>525791, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_using_MAP_MAC_TFBP_TFBC_and_Combined_method_India_2006_/525791", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories using MAP, MAC, TFBP, TFBC, and Combined method. India, 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:36:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855207"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard derived from complete birth histories is also shown. The six examples in Figures 7-<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a> represent different levels of performance of the Combined method, in order from best to worst.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories"], "article_id"=>525665, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_using_MAP_MAC_TFBP_TFBC_and_Combined_method_Honduras_2006_/525665", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories using MAP, MAC, TFBP, TFBC, and Combined method. Honduras, 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:34:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/854840"], "description"=>"<p>Summary birth history estimates are compared with national-level estimates from vital registration, the standard indirect method, and Murray et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed.1000253-Murray1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories", "censuses", "mexico"], "article_id"=>525297, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_from_three_censuses_1990_2000_2005_in_Mexico_using_MAP_MAC_and_the_combined_methods_/525297", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories from three censuses (1990, 2000, 2005) in Mexico using MAP, MAC, and the combined methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:28:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855920"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (Figures 13–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>526373, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_I_Turkey_1994_/526373", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section I, Turkey, 1994.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:46:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856470"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>526921, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_II_Indonesia_2003_/526921", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section II, Indonesia, 2003.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:55:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857467"], "description"=>"<p>Note that in all regressions, both the dependent and independent variables are transformed using the logit transformation.</p>a<p> where <i>i</i> = group, <i>j</i> = country, <i>k</i> = survey,  = true <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> value for group <i>ijk</i>,  = predicted value for group <i>ijk</i>, and  = average <sub>5</sub><i>q</i><sub>0</sub> value for group <i>i</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cohort-derived", "methods", "relating", "under-five", "cohort-computed"], "article_id"=>527921, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_results_for_cohort_derived_methods_relating_under_five_mortality_to_the_cohort_computed_ratio_of_CD_CEB_/527921", "title"=>"Regression results for cohort-derived methods relating under-five mortality to the cohort-computed ratio of CD/CEB.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:12:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855696"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard derived from complete birth histories is also shown. The six examples in Figures 7-<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a> represent different levels of performance of the Combined method, in order from best to worst.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories"], "article_id"=>526156, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_using_MAP_MAC_TFBP_TFBC_and_Combined_method_Malawi_2005_/526156", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories using MAP, MAC, TFBP, TFBC, and Combined method. Malawi, 2005.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:42:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857398"], "description"=>"<p>Note that in all regressions, both the dependent and independent variables are transformed using the logit transformation.</p>a<p> where <i>i</i> = group, <i>j</i> = country, <i>k</i> = survey,  = true value for group <i>ijk</i>,  = predicted value for group <i>ijk</i>, and  = average value for group <i>i</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tfbp-derived", "relating", "under-five", "period-computed"], "article_id"=>527851, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_results_for_TFBP_derived_method_relating_under_five_mortality_to_the_period_computed_ratio_of_CD_CEB_/527851", "title"=>"Regression results for TFBP-derived method relating under-five mortality to the period-computed ratio of CD/CEB.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:10:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/854775"], "description"=>"<p>The same concept is applied to expected deaths for each year prior to the survey and then the two quantities are used to compute the period-derived ratio of CD/CEB.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "summation", "births", "women", "ages"], "article_id"=>525231, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lexis_diagram_showing_the_summation_of_expected_births_EBs_across_women_of_all_ages_for_each_year_prior_to_the_survey_for_the_MAP_method_/525231", "title"=>"Lexis diagram showing the summation of expected births (EBs) across women of all ages for each year prior to the survey for the MAP method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:27:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/854967"], "description"=>"<p>The relationship between the cohort measure of CD/CEB for four different age groups of mothers is shown. The red points are outliers that were excluded from the model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bivariate", "logit"], "article_id"=>525425, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_bivariate_relationship_between_child_mortality_and_the_CD_CEB_ratio_after_logit_transformation_/525425", "title"=>"The bivariate relationship between child mortality and the CD/CEB ratio after logit transformation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:30:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856063"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g016\" target=\"_blank\">16</a>) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect"], "article_id"=>526515, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_I_Egypt_2005_/526515", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section I, Egypt, 2005.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:48:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856890"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates generated by complete birth histories from a single survey are also compared to the validation dataset. The top section of each panel represents the in-sample performance, and the bottom section is the average out-of-sample performance across all five hold-out groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methods"], "article_id"=>527350, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g022", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_MAC_TFBC_MAP_TFBP_and_combined_methods_as_measured_by_mean_of_residuals_/527350", "title"=>"Performance of MAC, TFBC, MAP, TFBP, and combined methods as measured by mean of residuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 02:02:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855566"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard derived from complete birth histories is also shown. The six examples in Figures 7-<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a> represent different levels of performance of the Combined method, in order from best to worst.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["under-five", "generated", "histories"], "article_id"=>526025, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_under_five_mortality_generated_from_summary_birth_histories_using_MAP_MAC_TFBP_TFBC_and_Combined_method_Ethiopia_2006_/526025", "title"=>"Estimates of under-five mortality generated from summary birth histories using MAP, MAC, TFBP, TFBC, and Combined method. Ethiopia, 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:40:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/854654"], "description"=>"<p>Similar distributions over time prior to the survey are generated for each category of single year of age and number of children ever born, for each of the five regions. The same is done for distributions of deaths (not shown in this graph). The distributions from the applicable region are then applied to every mother in the dataset to generate the expected distribution of births and deaths of her children across time prior to the survey. For example, according to the distributions shown above, a 24-y-old woman from this region with three children would be expected to have had 12% of them in the past year, 10.2% in the second year prior to the survey, 10% in the third year prior to the survey, and so on down to small fractions of children expected in the 13th, 14th, and 15th year prior to the survey. For each year prior to the survey, the total number of expected children dead and children ever born is calculated using the expected values across all age groups. The TFBP method applies similar logic, but groups mothers according to the number of years since their first birth rather than by age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "children"], "article_id"=>525112, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_distributions_of_children_ever_born_used_to_generate_the_period_ratio_of_CD_CEB_in_the_MAP_method_sub_Saharan_Africa_West_Central_region_/525112", "title"=>"Example distributions of children ever born used to generate the period ratio of CD/CEB in the MAP method (sub-Saharan Africa, West/Central region).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:25:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856325"], "description"=>"<p>The gold standard generated from complete birth histories is also shown. Section I (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g013\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 13</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g014\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g015\" target=\"_blank\"></a>16) shows four surveys that best illustrate the improvement in measurement of under-five mortality when the combined method is used as compared to the standard method. Section II (<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g017\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 17</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g018\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g019\" target=\"_blank\"></a><a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253#pmed-1000253-g020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>) shows four surveys that provide a more balanced representation of the performance of the combined method, including the surveys that perform at the best, 33rd, 66th, and worst percentiles, in that order, on the basis of the standard deviation of residuals metric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "histories", "best-performing", "indirect", "dominican"], "article_id"=>526780, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Julie Knoll Rajaratnam", "Linda N. Tran", "Alan D. Lopez", "Christopher J. L. Murray"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000253.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphs_of_estimates_from_summary_birth_histories_using_the_best_performing_combined_method_and_the_standard_indirect_West_method_Section_I_Dominican_Republic_2003_/526780", "title"=>"Graphs of estimates from summary birth histories using the best-performing combined method and the standard indirect (West) method. Section I, Dominican Republic, 2003.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-13 01:53:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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