Misrepresentation of Randomized Controlled Trials in Press Releases and News Coverage: A Cohort Study
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{"title"=>"Misrepresentation of Randomized Controlled Trials in Press Releases and News Coverage: A Cohort Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Amélie", "last_name"=>"Yavchitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"55060862700"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabelle", "last_name"=>"Boutron", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603060118"}, {"first_name"=>"Aida", "last_name"=>"Bafeta", "scopus_author_id"=>"55062110600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ibrahim", "last_name"=>"Marroun", "scopus_author_id"=>"56366895400"}, {"first_name"=>"Pierre", "last_name"=>"Charles", "scopus_author_id"=>"16552072200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean", "last_name"=>"Mantz", "scopus_author_id"=>"23138392100"}, {"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Ravaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006328159"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308", "sgr"=>"84866639664", "pui"=>"365720712", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866639664", "issn"=>"15491277", "pmid"=>"22984354", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"2ad59850-69d9-3d6f-b8c7-a7b7dbc9a0a0", "abstract"=>"Previous studies indicate that in published reports, trial results can be distorted by the use of \"spin\" (specific reporting strategies, intentional or unintentional, emphasizing the beneficial effect of the experimental treatment). We aimed to (1) evaluate the presence of \"spin\" in press releases and associated media coverage; and (2) evaluate whether findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) based on press releases and media coverage are misinterpreted.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/misrepresentation-randomized-controlled-trials-press-releases-news-coverage-cohort-study", "reader_count"=>64, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>2, "Linguistics"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578646"], "description"=>"a<p>Adequately, with effect size and precision or treatment effect in each arm with precision.</p>b<p>Numbers do not add up as the types of “spin” were not mutually exclusive.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics"], "article_id"=>249141, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Amélie Yavchitz", "Isabelle Boutron", "Aida Bafeta", "Ibrahim Marroun", "Pierre Charles", "Jean Mantz", "Philippe Ravaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_characteristics_of_articles_/249141", "title"=>"General characteristics of articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-11 02:32:21"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578546"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of “spin” in abstracts, in press releases, and in related news items.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Non-clinical medicine"], "article_id"=>249039, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Amélie Yavchitz", "Isabelle Boutron", "Aida Bafeta", "Ibrahim Marroun", "Pierre Charles", "Jean Mantz", "Philippe Ravaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_8220_spin_8221_in_abstracts_in_press_releases_and_in_related_news_items_/249039", "title"=>"Examples of “spin” in abstracts, in press releases, and in related news items.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-11 02:30:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578673"], "description"=>"<p>Bivariate analysis of factors associated with and “spin” in the press releases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors"], "article_id"=>249173, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Amélie Yavchitz", "Isabelle Boutron", "Aida Bafeta", "Ibrahim Marroun", "Pierre Charles", "Jean Mantz", "Philippe Ravaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_analysis_of_factors_associated_with_and_8220_spin_8221_in_the_press_releases_/249173", "title"=>"Bivariate analysis of factors associated with and “spin” in the press releases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-11 02:32:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578708"], "description"=>"a<p>Numbers do not add up as the types of “spin” were not mutually exclusive.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics"], "article_id"=>249206, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Amélie Yavchitz", "Isabelle Boutron", "Aida Bafeta", "Ibrahim Marroun", "Pierre Charles", "Jean Mantz", "Philippe Ravaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_characteristics_of_press_releases_/249206", "title"=>"General characteristics of press releases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-11 02:33:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305128", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305335", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305424", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305490", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305753", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305820", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/305897"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Previous studies indicate that in published reports, trial results can be distorted by the use of “spin” (specific reporting strategies, intentional or unintentional, emphasizing the beneficial effect of the experimental treatment). We aimed to (1) evaluate the presence of “spin” in press releases and associated media coverage; and (2) evaluate whether findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) based on press releases and media coverage are misinterpreted.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We systematically searched for all press releases indexed in the EurekAlert! database between December 2009 and March 2010. Of the 498 press releases retrieved and screened, we included press releases for all two-arm, parallel-group RCTs (<em>n</em> = 70). We obtained a copy of the scientific article to which the press release related and we systematically searched for related news items using Lexis Nexis.</p> <p>“Spin,” defined as specific reporting strategies (intentional or unintentional) emphasizing the beneficial effect of the experimental treatment, was identified in 28 (40%) scientific article abstract conclusions and in 33 (47%) press releases. From bivariate and multivariable analysis assessing the journal type, funding source, sample size, type of treatment (drug or other), results of the primary outcomes (all nonstatistically significant versus other), author of the press release, and the presence of “spin” in the abstract conclusion, the only factor associated, with “spin” in the press release was “spin” in the article abstract conclusions (relative risk [RR] 5.6, [95% CI 2.8–11.1], <em>p</em><0.001). Findings of RCTs based on press releases were overestimated for 19 (27%) reports. News items were identified for 41 RCTs; 21 (51%) were reported with “spin,” mainly the same type of “spin” as those identified in the press release and article abstract conclusion. Findings of RCTs based on the news item was overestimated for ten (24%) reports.</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3><p>“Spin” was identified in about half of press releases and media coverage. In multivariable analysis, the main factor associated with “spin” in press releases was the presence of “spin” in the article abstract conclusion.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["misrepresentation", "randomized", "controlled", "trials", "releases", "cohort"], "article_id"=>120193, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Amélie Yavchitz", "Isabelle Boutron", "Aida Bafeta", "Ibrahim Marroun", "Pierre Charles", "Jean Mantz", "Philippe Ravaud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>59, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Misrepresentation_of_Randomized_Controlled_Trials_in_Press_Releases_and_News_Coverage_A_Cohort_Study/120193", "title"=>"Misrepresentation of Randomized Controlled Trials in Press Releases and News Coverage: A Cohort Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-11 00:03:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/578374"], "description"=>"<p>Flow diagram of the selected press releases and related articles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "releases"], "article_id"=>248863, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Amélie Yavchitz", "Isabelle Boutron", "Aida Bafeta", "Ibrahim Marroun", "Pierre Charles", "Jean Mantz", "Philippe Ravaud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001308.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_diagram_of_the_selected_press_releases_and_related_articles_/248863", "title"=>"Flow diagram of the selected press releases and related articles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-11 02:27:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Clinical medicine", "average_usage"=>[320, 556, 672, 767, 863, 963, 1059, 1140, 1221, 1310, 1393, 1465, 1536, 1600, 1652, 1705, 1767, 1838, 1912, 1952, 2007, 2056, 2116, 2159, 2205]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmaceutics", "average_usage"=>[305, 566, 705, 814, 911, 1028, 1121, 1228, 1325, 1435, 1532, 1608, 1690, 1769, 1843, 1921, 1997, 2089, 2155, 2225, 2285, 2361, 2433, 2496, 2560]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[314, 554, 687, 796, 891, 983, 1075, 1170, 1261, 1340, 1422, 1504, 1574, 1647, 1715, 1786, 1848, 1919, 1990, 2053, 2115, 2197, 2258, 2333, 2395]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[354, 585, 710, 810, 904, 998, 1090, 1181, 1268, 1361, 1435, 1525, 1594, 1657, 1731, 1813, 1878, 1948, 2016, 2094, 2158, 2219, 2294, 2347, 2410]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Sociology", "average_usage"=>[379, 645, 772, 877, 988, 1089, 1191, 1313, 1410, 1521, 1621, 1696, 1785, 1857, 1932, 2023, 2100, 2186, 2256, 2345, 2429, 2505, 2595, 2646, 2741]}]}
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