Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010
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{"title"=>"Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alize J.", "last_name"=>"Ferrari", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195348880"}, {"first_name"=>"Fiona J.", "last_name"=>"Charlson", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191632086"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosana E.", "last_name"=>"Norman", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194839077"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott B.", "last_name"=>"Patten", "scopus_author_id"=>"8635340900"}, {"first_name"=>"Greg", "last_name"=>"Freedman", "scopus_author_id"=>"55522738400"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.L.", "last_name"=>"Murray", "scopus_author_id"=>"55481130700"}, {"first_name"=>"Theo", "last_name"=>"Vos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003628012"}, {"first_name"=>"Harvey A.", "last_name"=>"Whiteford", "scopus_author_id"=>"55906494000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"370401979", "sgr"=>"84889076134", "issn"=>"15491277", "pmid"=>"24223526", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84889076134", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)\\r1549-1277 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"cb92e4b2-483f-3fd6-84ef-ffeaeb7acb08", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8%) of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%). Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2%) of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%). There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8%) to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7%) of global DALYs. CONCLUSIONS: GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing cost-effective interventions to reduce its burden. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/burden-depressive-disorders-country-sex-age-year-findings-global-burden-disease-study-2010-23", "reader_count"=>1044, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>32, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>34, "Researcher"=>141, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>91, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>206, "Student > Postgraduate"=>92, "Student > Master"=>219, "Other"=>51, "Student > Bachelor"=>131, "Lecturer"=>13, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>10, "Professor"=>24}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>32, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>34, "Researcher"=>141, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>91, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268590"], "description"=>"<p>The difference between total YLDs in 1990 and YLDs at step 1 represents the change in YLDs due to population growth; the difference between YLDs at step 1 and YLDs at step 2 represents the change in YLDs due to population aging; the difference between total YLDs in 2010 and YLDs at step 2 represents the change in YLDs due to changes in prevalence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depressive", "ylds", "1990"], "article_id"=>842065, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_depressive_disorder_YLDs_between_1990_and_2010_/842065", "title"=>"Change in depressive disorder YLDs between 1990 and 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268589"], "description"=>"a<p>RR estimates were pooled using meta-analytic strategies <a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547#pmed.1001547-Charlson2\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547#pmed.1001547-Li1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>.</p><p>95% UI, 95% uncertainty interval;</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attributable", "mdd", "ischemic"], "article_id"=>842064, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_data_used_to_calculate_burden_attributable_to_MDD_as_a_risk_factor_for_suicide_and_ischemic_heart_disease_/842064", "title"=>"Summary of data used to calculate burden attributable to MDD as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268587"], "description"=>"<p>Low, statistically lower YLD rates compared to global mean; middle, YLD rates not statistically different to global mean; high, statistically higher YLD rates compared to global mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "depressive", "disorders"], "article_id"=>842062, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_YLD_rates_per_100_000_by_country_for_depressive_disorders_in_2010_/842062", "title"=>"YLD rates (per 100,000) by country for depressive disorders in 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268583"], "description"=>"<p>95% UI, 95% uncertainty interval; AP-HI, Asia Pacific, high income; As-C, Asia Central; AS-E, Asia East; AS-S, Asia South; A-SE, Asia Southeast; Aus, Australasia; Caribb, Caribbean; Eur-C, Europe Central; Eur-E, Europe Eastern; Eur-W, Europe Western; LA-An, Latin America, Andean; LA-C, Latin America, Central; LA-Sth, Latin America, Southern; LA-Trop, Latin America, Tropical; Nafr-ME, North Africa/Middle East; Nam-HI, North America, high income; Oc, Oceania; SSA-C, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central; SSA-E, Sub-Saharan Africa, East; SSA-S, Sub-Saharan Africa Southern; SSA-W, Sub-Saharan Africa, West.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "mdd", "dysthymia", "1990"], "article_id"=>842059, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_YLD_rates_per_100_000_by_region_for_MDD_and_dysthymia_in_1990_and_2010_/842059", "title"=>"YLD rates (per 100,000) by region for MDD and dysthymia in 1990 and 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268601", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268602", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268603", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268604", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268605"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders.</p><p>Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%–10.8%) of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%–2.0%). Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%–3.2%) of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%–0.6%). There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%–3.8%) to 3.8% (3.0%–4.7%) of global DALYs.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing cost-effective interventions to reduce its burden.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depressive", "disorders", "findings"], "article_id"=>842076, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Thomas Traunwieser", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>29, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burden_of_Depressive_Disorders_by_Country_Sex_Age_and_Year_Findings_from_the_Global_Burden_of_Disease_Study_2010_/842076", "title"=>"Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268592"], "description"=>"<p>Mean rank, YLD, and DALY ranks were estimated for MDD and dysthymia then simulated 1,000 times to estimate 95% uncertainty ranges. The 95% bounds of uncertainty represent the 25th and 975th value of the 1,000 draws; order, regional YLDs, and DALYs for MDD and dysthymia were ordered by their mean rank across 1,000 draws.</p><p>95% UI, 95% uncertainty interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["daly", "yld", "rankings", "intervals", "depressive", "disorders"], "article_id"=>842067, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_DALY_and_YLD_rankings_with_95_uncertainty_intervals_for_depressive_disorders_in_2010_/842067", "title"=>"Regional DALY and YLD rankings with 95% uncertainty intervals for depressive disorders in 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268591"], "description"=>"a<p>Incidence data were excluded for MDD and dysthymia as they were not consistent with the prevalence and duration/remission data.</p>b<p>The one data point for duration of 37.7 weeks was an estimate of average duration calculated from a best fit curve between the data points available from five studies.</p>c<p>Both studies reported no elevated risk of mortality in those with dysthymia.</p>d<p>The disability weight for mild-MDD was applied to dysthymia.</p><p>95% UI, 95% uncertainty interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ylds", "depressive"], "article_id"=>842066, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alize J. Ferrari", "Fiona J. Charlson", "Rosana E. Norman", "Scott B. Patten", "Greg Freedman", "Christopher J.L. Murray", "Theo Vos", "Harvey A. Whiteford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_data_used_to_calculate_YLDs_for_depressive_disorders_/842066", "title"=>"Summary of data used to calculate YLDs for depressive disorders.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:02:57"}

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Relative Metric

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