The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection
Publication Date
November 01, 2011
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Ana C. Bahia, Marina S. Kubota, Antonio J. Tempone, Helena R. C. Araújo, et al
Volume
5
Issue
11
Pages
e1317
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001317
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22069502
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206008
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22069502
Web of Science
000298134000004
Scopus
82555184833
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/jakstat-pathway-controls-plasmodium-vivax-load-early-stages-anopheles-aquasalis-infection
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ana C.", "last_name"=>"Bahia", "scopus_author_id"=>"23027092200"}, {"first_name"=>"Marina S.", "last_name"=>"Kubota", "scopus_author_id"=>"37001877900"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio J.", "last_name"=>"Tempone", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603306877"}, {"first_name"=>"Helena R.C.", "last_name"=>"Araújo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004944574"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruno A.M.", "last_name"=>"Guedes", "scopus_author_id"=>"36716372200"}, {"first_name"=>"Alessandra S.", "last_name"=>"Orfanó", "scopus_author_id"=>"54414750900"}, {"first_name"=>"Wanderli P.", "last_name"=>"Tadei", "scopus_author_id"=>"35564204700"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudia M.", "last_name"=>"Ríos-Velásquez", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506868302"}, {"first_name"=>"Yeon S.", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404095378"}, {"first_name"=>"Nágila F.C.", "last_name"=>"Secundino", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801573691"}, {"first_name"=>"Carolina", "last_name"=>"Barillas-Mury", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198063756"}, {"first_name"=>"Paulo F.P.", "last_name"=>"Pimenta", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003608042"}, {"first_name"=>"Yara M.", "last_name"=>"Traub-Csekö", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701806397"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-82555184833", "issn"=>"19352727", "pui"=>"363024988", "sgr"=>"82555184833", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22069502", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317"}, "id"=>"e712255f-ccce-3ae8-bb38-a4893efad8c3", "abstract"=>"Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/jakstat-pathway-controls-plasmodium-vivax-load-early-stages-anopheles-aquasalis-infection", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717456"], "description"=>"<p>A: Schematic representation of <i>A. aquasalis</i> (Aq), <i>A. gambiae</i> (Ag) and <i>A. aegypti</i> (Ae) PIAS proteins showing the SAP domain (blue) and the MIZ/SP-RING zinc finger domain (red). B: Phylogenetic tree for <i>PIAS</i> of insects constructed based on the neighbor-joining method. C: Multiple aminoacid sequence alignment of <i>PIAS</i> from insects. Accession numbers of PIAS sequences from: <i>A. aquasalis</i> (Aq) – HM851177, A. <i>gambiae</i> (Ag) – XP_001688469.1, <i>A. aegypti</i> (Ae) – XP_001647815.1, <i>D. pseudobscura</i> (Dp) – XP_002138569, and <i>A. mellifera</i> (Am) – XP_623571.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "microbiology"], "article_id"=>387806, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_PIAS_gene_/387806", "title"=>"Characterization of <i>PIAS</i> gene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:10:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717839"], "description"=>"<p>A: Transcription of NOS in <i>A. aquasalis</i> following different feeding regimens determined by RTPCR. A: sugar-fed females (dotted line), blood-fed control (BFC) and blood-fed infected (BFI) females. h – hours. *0.05>p>0.03, ** 0.03>p>0.01, *** p>0.01. The ANOVA test with multiple comparisons of Tukey was used in the analyses. B: Light microscopy of a transversally open midgut of <i>A. aquasalis</i> showing the gut epithelium composed by a single cell monolayer. C and D: Immunofluorescence staining of 24 hours BFC and BFI female guts with a universal anti-NOS antibody showing fluorescent epithelial cells (asterisks) positive for the presence of NOS protein.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nos"], "article_id"=>388187, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_NOS_in_A_aquasalis_/388187", "title"=>"Expression of NOS in <i>A. aquasalis.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:16:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363356", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/363372"], "description"=>"<div><p>Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is <em>Anopheles aquasalis</em>, and <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the <em>A. aquasalis</em> JAK-STAT pathway after <em>P. vivax</em> infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT), the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS) and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS) were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h) after <em>P. vivax</em> challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi) while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of <em>STAT</em> by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of <em>A. aquasalis</em>. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector <em>A. aquasalis</em> with <em>P. vivax</em>, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["jak-stat", "pathway", "controls", "stages"], "article_id"=>131818, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_JAK_STAT_Pathway_Controls_Plasmodium_vivax_Load_in_Early_Stages_of_Anopheles_aquasalis_Infection/131818", "title"=>"The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> Load in Early Stages of <em>Anopheles aquasalis</em> Infection", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 00:30:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717547"], "description"=>"<p>A: immature stages (eggs, larvae (L1–L4) and pupae), sugar-fed males (♂) and females (♀), B: sugar-fed females (dotted line), blood-fed control (BFC) and blood-fed infected females (BFI). h – hours, L1 – first instar larva, L2 – second instar larva, L3 – third instar larva and L4 – fourth instar larva. +–: s.e.m.; * 0.05>p>0.03, ** 0.03>p>0.01, *** p>0.01. The ANOVA test with multiple comparisons of Tukey or Games-Howell was used in A. In B the ANOVA test with multiple comparisons of Tukey or Games-Howell was used in the comparisons between the blood-fed samples analyses and the Kruskal-Wallis test with multiple comparisons of Dunn's in the blood-infected samples analyses. Bonferroni correction was used when necessary in the analyses of the blood-infected samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "stat"], "article_id"=>387892, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transcription_levels_of_A_aquasalis_STAT_determined_by_RTPCR_/387892", "title"=>"Transcription levels of <i>A. aquasalis</i> STAT determined by RTPCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:11:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717600"], "description"=>"<p>A: Transcription levels of <i>A. aquasalis</i> PIAS in immature stages (eggs, larvae (L1–L4) and pupae), sugar-fed males and females, B: Transcription levels of <i>A. aquasalis</i> PIAS in sugar-fed females (dotted line), and females after blood-feeding and after <i>P. vivax</i> infection, C: Expression of PIAS protein by western blot in <i>A. aquasalis</i> submitted to different feeding regimens (sugar-fed male (♂) and female (♀), blood-fed (control) (BFC) and blood-fed infected (BFI) females) and human blood. h – hours, L1 – first instar larva, L2 – second instar larva, L3 – third instar larva and L4 – fourth instar larva. +–: s.e.m.; * 0.05>p>0.03, ** 0.03>p>0.01, *** p>0.01. The ANOVA test with multiple comparisons of Tukey or Games-Howell was used in A. In B, the ANOVA test with multiple comparisons of Tukey or Games-Howell was used in the comparisons between the blood-fed samples analyses and the Kruskal-Wallis test with multiple comparisons of Dunn's in the blood-infected samples analyses. Bonferroni correction was used when necessary in the analyses of the blood-infected samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pias"], "article_id"=>387956, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_PIAS_in_A_aquasalis_/387956", "title"=>"Expression of PIAS in <i>A. aquasalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:12:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718218"], "description"=>"<p>A and B - Effect of dsRNA-mediated knockdown of <i>ß-gal</i> (control) and <i>STAT</i> on <i>A. aquasalis</i> STAT expression 1 to 5 days after dsRNA injection evaluated by semi-quantitative PCR. Day zero refers to <i>A. aquasalis</i> sugar-fed females. C- Number of infected insects after dsRNA injections. D and E - Oocyst numbers (D) and visualization (arrows) (E) in midguts of mosquitoes previously injected with dsRNAfor ß-gal (D, E1 and E2) and STAT (D, E3 and E4) three to five days after <i>Plasmodium</i> infection. Three replicates of each experiment were performed. The significance of gene silencing on oocyst load in experimental samples, compared to dsß-gal-treated controls, was determined by Mann-Whitney statistical test with Bonferroni correction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stat", "susceptibility"], "article_id"=>388568, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_STAT_silencing_on_A_aquasalis_susceptibility_to_P_vivax_infection_/388568", "title"=>"Effect of STAT silencing on <i>A. aquasalis</i> susceptibility to <i>P. vivax</i> infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:22:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717946"], "description"=>"<p>A, B, C and D: the figures show the expression of the STAT proteins in sugar-fed (SF) males and females. A and B - control figures. E–J: the figures show the expression of the STAT proteins in females submitted to different feeding regimes. E, G and I – 24, 36 and 48 hours (h) blood-fed control (BFC), respectively; G F, H and I - 24, 36 and 48 h blood-fed infected (BFI), respectively. Arrowheads show the fat body, asterisks represent the eggs and arrows represent disperse cells expressing STAT proteins. To - thorax, Ab - abdomen, eg - eggs and Bl - blood.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stat", "tissues"], "article_id"=>388298, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_of_STAT_protein_in_different_tissues_of_A_aquasalis_/388298", "title"=>"Detection of STAT protein in different tissues of <i>A. aquasalis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:18:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717736"], "description"=>"<p>A: Schematic representation of <i>A. aquasalis</i> NOS protein showing nitric oxide synthase (green), NADPH-dependent FMN reductase (red) and ferrodoxin reductase (red) domains. B: Phylogenetic tree of insects NOS constructed based on the neighbor-joining method. C: Multiple aminoacid sequence alignment of insects NOS. Accession numbers of NOS sequences from: <i>A. aquasalis</i> (Aq) – HM851179, <i>A. gambiae</i> (Ag) – AGAP008255-PA, <i>A. aegypti</i> (Ae) – AAEL009745, <i>A. stephensi</i> (As) – O61608, and <i>D. melanogaster</i> (Dm) – CG6713.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "microbiology"], "article_id"=>388088, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_NOS_gene_/388088", "title"=>"Characterization of <i>NOS</i> gene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:14:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/717310"], "description"=>"<p>A: Schematic representation of STAT protein from <i>A. aquasalis</i> (AqSTAT-A), <i>A. gambiae</i> (AgSTAT-A and AgSTAT-B) and <i>A. aegypti</i> (AeSTAT-A) showing the STAT interaction domain (yellow), STAT alpha domain (green), STAT binding domain (blue) and SH2 domain (red). B: Phylogenetic tree for STAT using insect sequences, constructed based on the neighbor-joining method. C: Multiple aminoacid sequence alignment of STAT of insects. Accession numbers of STAT sequences from: <i>A. aquasalis</i> (Aq) – HM851178, <i>A. gambiae</i> (Ag) (STAT-A – ACO05014.1 and STAT-B – CAA09070.1), <i>A. aegypti</i> (Ae) – ABO72629.1, <i>Culex quinquefasciatus</i> (Cq) – XP_001866606.1, <i>Culex tritaeniorhynchus</i> (Ct) – AAQU64663.1, and <i>D. melanogaster</i> (Dm) – NP_996243.1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "microbiology"], "article_id"=>387657, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_the_STAT_gene_/387657", "title"=>"Characterization of the <i>STAT</i> gene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:07:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/718091"], "description"=>"<p>A, B, C and D: the figures show the expression of the PIAS proteins in sugar-fed (SF) males and females. A and B - control figures. E–J: the figures show the expression of the PIAS proteins in females submitted to different feeding regimes. E, G and I – 24, 36 and 48 hours (h) blood-fed control (BFC), respectively; G F, H and I - 24, 36 and 48 h blood-fed infected (BFI), respectively. Arrowheads show the fat body, asterisks represent the eggs and arrows represent disperse cells expressing PIAS proteins. To - thorax, Ab - abdomen, eg - eggs and Bl - blood.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pias", "tissues"], "article_id"=>388447, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Ana C. Bahia", "Marina S. Kubota", "Antonio J. Tempone", "Helena R. C. Araújo", "Bruno A. M. Guedes", "Alessandra S. Orfanó", "Wanderli P. Tadei", "Claudia M. Ríos-Velásquez", "Yeon S. Han", "Nágila F. C. Secundino", "Carolina Barillas-Mury", "Paulo F. P. Pimenta", "Yara M. Traub-Csekö"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001317.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_PIAS_in_different_tissues_of_A_aquasalis_insects_/388447", "title"=>"Expression of PIAS in different tissues of <i>A. aquasalis</i> insects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-01 02:20:47"}

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