Coevolution of Male and Female Genital Morphology in Waterfowl
Publication Date
May 02, 2007
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Patricia L.R. Brennan, Richard O. Prum, Kevin G. Mc Cracken, Michael D. Sorenson, et al
Volume
2
Issue
5
Pages
e418
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0000418
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476339
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1855079
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/17476339
Web of Science
000207445700020
Scopus
38849127917
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/coevolution-male-female-genital-morphology-waterfowl
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Patricia L R", "last_name"=>"Brennan", "scopus_author_id"=>"24467188200"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard O.", "last_name"=>"Prum", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004341626"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin G.", "last_name"=>"McCracken", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005295154"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Sorenson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006005330"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert E.", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7501530065"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim R.", "last_name"=>"Birkhead", "scopus_author_id"=>"56948323800"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"38849127917", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0000418", "pui"=>"352646759", "pmid"=>"17476339", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-38849127917", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"6d2ed381-ed06-3a31-995e-eeea8337f349", "abstract"=>"Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5->40 cm) and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i) dead end sacs, and (ii) clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/coevolution-male-female-genital-morphology-waterfowl", "reader_count"=>225, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Researcher"=>38, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>47, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>46, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Researcher"=>38, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>47, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>46, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>176, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Psychology"=>5, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>176}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Japan"=>1, "Egypt"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Switzerland"=>2, "Canada"=>4, "Cuba"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "Poland"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950703"], "description"=>"<p>Phallus length >12 cm has evolved three times independently within these waterfowl- in <i>Oxyura, Clangula</i>, and <i>Anas.</i> All three of these lineages show correlated evolution of anatomical counter measures in the female reproductive tract.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "phallus", "phylogeny", "minimized", "squared", "parsimony", "algorithm", "classes"], "article_id"=>621016, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia L.R. Brennan", "Richard O. Prum", "Kevin G. McCracken", "Michael D. Sorenson", "Robert E. Wilson", "Tim R. Birkhead"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>88, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothesis_of_the_phylogenetic_pattern_of_evolution_in_phallus_length_based_on_the_phylogeny_proposed_in_Fig_S1_using_the_minimized_squared_change_parsimony_algorithm_in_MacClade_and_three_size_classes_1_6_cm_6_12_cm_and_12_18_cm_/621016", "title"=>"Hypothesis of the phylogenetic pattern of evolution in phallus length, based on the phylogeny proposed in Fig. S1, using the minimized squared change parsimony algorithm in MacClade, and three size classes (1–6 cm, 6–12 cm, and 12–18 cm).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-02 00:16:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950605"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Harlequin duck (<i>Histrionicus histrionicus)</i> and (B) African goose (<i>Anser cygnoides</i>), two species with a short phallus and no forced copulations, in which females have simple vaginas as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418#pone-0000418-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1a</a>. (C) Long-tailed duck (<i>Clangula hyemalis)</i>, and (D) Mallard <i>Anas platyrhynchos</i> two species with a long phallus and high levels of forced copulations, in which females have very elaborate vaginas (size bars = 2 cm). ] = Phallus, * = Testis, ★ = Muscular base of the male phallus, ▹ = upper and lower limits of the vagina.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genital", "covariation"], "article_id"=>620925, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia L.R. Brennan", "Richard O. Prum", "Kevin G. McCracken", "Michael D. Sorenson", "Robert E. Wilson", "Tim R. Birkhead"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_genital_covariation_in_waterfowl_/620925", "title"=>"Examples of genital covariation in waterfowl.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-02 00:15:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950653"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Phallus length <i>vs.</i> number of vaginal pouches. (B) Phallus length <i>vs.</i> number of vaginal spirals. Points are the averages for each species studied.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phallus"], "article_id"=>620972, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia L.R. Brennan", "Richard O. Prum", "Kevin G. McCracken", "Michael D. Sorenson", "Robert E. Wilson", "Tim R. Birkhead"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_male_phallus_length_and_female_vagina_/620972", "title"=>"Relationships between male phallus length and female vagina.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-02 00:16:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467155", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/467263"], "description"=>"<div><p>Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5–>40 cm) and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i) dead end sacs, and (ii) clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coevolution", "genital", "morphology", "waterfowl"], "article_id"=>152105, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia L.R. Brennan", "Richard O. Prum", "Kevin G. McCracken", "Michael D. Sorenson", "Robert E. Wilson", "Tim R. Birkhead"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Coevolution_of_Male_and_Female_Genital_Morphology_in_Waterfowl/152105", "title"=>"Coevolution of Male and Female Genital Morphology in Waterfowl", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2007-05-02 00:35:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/950564"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Typical tubular avian vagina from domestic Pheasant (<i>Phasianus colchicus</i>) (connective tissue removed). Note the lack of any elaborations. (B) Vagina (V) of Pekin duck (domestic <i>Anas plathyrhynchos</i>) (connective tissue removed). Note the complexity of the structure. (C) Longitudinal dissection of Pekin Duck vagina showing structural complexity. Pockets (*) are closer to the cloaca (Cl) and their lumen in shown between the traces lines. Spirals (white arrows) are closer to the uterus (or shell gland) (U). S.S. = Area of sperm storage tubules. (Scale bar in all pictures = 2 cm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vaginal"], "article_id"=>620887, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Patricia L.R. Brennan", "Richard O. Prum", "Kevin G. McCracken", "Michael D. Sorenson", "Robert E. Wilson", "Tim R. Birkhead"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000418.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Avian_vaginal_morphology_/620887", "title"=>"Avian vaginal morphology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2007-05-02 00:14:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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