Adult-Young Ratio, a Major Factor Regulating Social Behaviour of Young: A Horse Study
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{"title"=>"Adult-young ratio, a major factor regulating social behaviour of young: A horse study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marie", "last_name"=>"Bourjade", "scopus_author_id"=>"24470845500"}, {"first_name"=>"Alice", "last_name"=>"de Boyer des Roches", "scopus_author_id"=>"24179396600"}, {"first_name"=>"Martine", "last_name"=>"Hausberger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603944164"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-62849104364", "sgr"=>"62849104364", "pui"=>"354352630", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"19293930", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0004888"}, "id"=>"16833c8a-fe5a-3ddb-830b-f64c08fb39aa", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski horses, Equus f. przewalskii, varying in composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the social interactions and spatial relationships of 12 one- and two-year-old Przewalski horses belonging to five families with adult-young ratios (AYR) ranging from 0.67 to 1.33. We found striking variations of aggression rates and spatial relationships related to the adult-young ratio: the lower this ratio, the more the young were aggressive, the more young and adults segregated and the tighter the young bonded to other young. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study demonstrating a correlation between adult-young ratios and aggression rates and social cohesion of young individuals in a naturalistic setting. The increase of aggression and the emergence of social segregation in groups with lower proportions of adults could reflect a related decrease of the influence of adults as regulators of the behaviour of young. This social regulation has both theoretical and practical implications for understanding the modalities of the influence of adults during ontogeny and for recommending optimal settings, as for instance, for schooling or animal group management.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/adultyoung-ratio-major-factor-regulating-social-behaviour-young-horse-study", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904084"], "description"=>"<p>a- Time spent with either a young neighbour or an adult neighbour, in relation to the adult-young ratio, b- Time spent close to or far from the nearest neighbour, in relation to the adult-young ratio. Time is expressed in percentage of scan-samples recorded in the field. Black triangles: adults; white circles: young; white squares: far from nearest neighbour (farther than 3.5 Horse Body-Length); stars: close to nearest neighbour (less than 0.5 Horse Body-Length). Categories “close” and “far” are not exclusive alternatives. Kendall partial coefficient correlation: * p<0.05, *** p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "przewalski", "horses", "nearest", "neighbour", "adult-young"], "article_id"=>574541, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Marie Bourjade", "Alice de Boyer des Roches", "Martine Hausberger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004888.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_relationships_of_young_Przewalski_horses_with_their_nearest_neighbour_in_relation_to_adult_young_ratios_/574541", "title"=>"Spatial relationships of young Przewalski horses with their nearest neighbour in relation to adult-young ratios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:29:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904034"], "description"=>"<p><i>N</i>: number of aggressive interactions performed by young in 10 hours. Kendall partial coefficient correlation, p<0.02.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adult-young", "ratios"], "article_id"=>574490, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Marie Bourjade", "Alice de Boyer des Roches", "Martine Hausberger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004888.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aggression_by_young_in_relation_to_adult_young_ratios_in_their_family_groups_/574490", "title"=>"Aggression by young in relation to adult-young ratios in their family groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:29:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/904142"], "description"=>"<p>Each horse was given an individual code indicating its age, sex and individual number. Ex: 1f5 is a one-year-old female, number five.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["horses"], "article_id"=>574605, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Marie Bourjade", "Alice de Boyer des Roches", "Martine Hausberger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004888.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Focal_horses_in_their_family_groups_/574605", "title"=>"Focal horses in their family groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:29:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

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