Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals
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{"title"=>"Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Carol", "last_name"=>"Kilkenny", "scopus_author_id"=>"8512244600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nick", "last_name"=>"Parsons", "scopus_author_id"=>"35243377500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ed", "last_name"=>"Kadyszewski", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506792718"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael F.W.", "last_name"=>"Festing", "scopus_author_id"=>"23046833500"}, {"first_name"=>"Innes C.", "last_name"=>"Cuthill", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005944583"}, {"first_name"=>"Derek", "last_name"=>"Fry", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202057932"}, {"first_name"=>"Jane", "last_name"=>"Hutton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202016050"}, {"first_name"=>"Douglas G.", "last_name"=>"Altman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201380947"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-76849104977", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368587323", "sgr"=>"76849104977", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007824", "pmid"=>"19956596", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007824"}, "id"=>"5852b0f0-ead8-3f6c-9387-ed41ac3b769f", "abstract"=>"For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and journal editors share the responsibility to ensure that published studies fulfil these criteria.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/survey-quality-experimental-design-statistical-analysis-reporting-research-using-animals-1", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874802"], "description"=>"†<p>The ‘??’ symbol indicates that the number of animals was not clear or not reported. In 35% (69/198) of the papers which did report animal numbers, the numbers differed between the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> and the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824#s2\" target=\"_blank\">results</a> sections of the paper.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["animals", "reported", "sections"], "article_id"=>545256, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_animals_reported_in_methods_and_results_sections_for_each_study_/545256", "title"=>"Number of animals reported in methods and results sections for each study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:27:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874654"], "description"=>"†<p>Number of studies that used two or more design factors.</p><p>Overall 62% (75/121) of all studies that had two or more design factors reported using a factorial design.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "factorial"], "article_id"=>545105, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_using_a_factorial_design_/545105", "title"=>"Number of studies using a factorial design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:25:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874942"], "description"=>"†<p>In phase 2 of the survey all 48 studies were assessed independently by two assessors, therefore numbers in each row sum to twice the number of studies.</p>*<p>49% (47/96) of the 48 studies assessed clearly stated the number of experimental units in all figures and tables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "stating", "numbers", "units", "animals", "cages", "figures"], "article_id"=>545390, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_clearly_stating_the_numbers_of_experimental_units_e_g_individual_animals_or_cages_of_animals_in_all_figures_and_tables_/545390", "title"=>"Number of studies clearly stating the numbers of experimental units (e.g. individual animals or cages of animals) in all figures and tables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:29:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874527"], "description"=>"†<p>The species (in the case of primates) or strain of animal used was reported by 99% (269/271) of all the studies surveyed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies"], "article_id"=>544983, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_the_species_or_strain_of_the_animals_/544983", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting the species or strain of the animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:23:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874689"], "description"=>"†<p>In phase 2 of the survey all 48 studies were assessed independently by two assessors, therefore numbers in each row sum to twice the number of studies assessed for each species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "explained"], "article_id"=>545144, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_that_explained_the_sample_size_/545144", "title"=>"Number of studies that explained the sample size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:25:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874495"], "description"=>"†<p>74% (200/271) of all studies reported the sex of the animals used in the main experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies"], "article_id"=>544950, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_the_sex_of_the_animals_/544950", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting the sex of the animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:22:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874148"], "description"=>"<p>Flow diagram summarising the survey methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "summarising"], "article_id"=>544602, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_diagram_summarising_the_survey_methods_/544602", "title"=>"Flow diagram summarising the survey methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:16:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874980"], "description"=>"†<p>Statistical methods described in materials and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> section of paper.</p>‡<p>Standard error of the mean, confidence interval, standard deviation or other error measurement.</p>*<p>70% (174/247); 91% (247/271) of all included studies used statistical methods to analyse the data; 17% (46/267) of the studies, that presented numerical data, did not present a measure of variation (e.g. standard deviation) or uncertainty (e.g. standard error of the mean [SEM] or confidence interval [CI]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["papers", "methods", "reported"], "article_id"=>545437, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_papers_which_used_statistical_methods_reported_the_method_used_and_also_used_an_error_measure_/545437", "title"=>"Number of papers which used statistical methods reported the method used and also used an error measure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:30:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874394"], "description"=>"†<p>Of all the studies assessed, 10% (28/271) did not report their funding source(s).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "classified"], "article_id"=>544846, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_funding_source_classified_by_main_funding_body_/544846", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting funding source classified by main funding body.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:20:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874869"], "description"=>"†<p>Random allocation of animals to experimental groups was reported in only 12% (32/271) of all the studies in the survey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "reported"], "article_id"=>545327, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_that_reported_using_randomisation_/545327", "title"=>"Number of studies that reported using randomisation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:28:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874325"], "description"=>"†<p>Sex, strain and either weight or age.</p>*<p>59% (159/271) of all papers clearly stated the study hypothesis, reported three animal characteristics (sex, strain and weight or age), and also reported the number of animals used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "characteristics", "animals"], "article_id"=>544779, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_the_study_hypothesis_three_animal_characteristics_and_the_number_of_animals_used_/544779", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting the study hypothesis, three animal characteristics and the number of animals used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874829"], "description"=>"†<p>99% (267/271) of the included studies presented numerical data. The study was scored “Yes” if numerical data were presented graphically, in tabular form or in the text, either for each animal or by treatment group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "presenting", "numerical"], "article_id"=>545284, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_presenting_numerical_data_/545284", "title"=>"Number of studies presenting numerical data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:28:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/433639"], "description"=>"<div><p>For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and journal editors share the responsibility to ensure that published studies fulfil these criteria.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["animals"], "article_id"=>145537, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Immunology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Survey_of_the_Quality_of_Experimental_Design_Statistical_Analysis_and_Reporting_of_Research_Using_Animals/145537", "title"=>"Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:32:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874361"], "description"=>"†<p>95% (258/271) of all studies stated the purpose of the study in the introduction; 3% (7/271) did not and in 2% (6/271) the purpose of the study was unclear to the assessors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "stating"], "article_id"=>544818, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_stating_the_purpose_of_the_study_in_the_introduction_/544818", "title"=>"Number of studies stating the purpose of the study in the introduction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:20:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874283"], "description"=>"<p>Number of papers classified into general type of treatment procedure described in the study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["papers", "classified"], "article_id"=>544739, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_papers_classified_into_general_type_of_treatment_procedure_described_in_the_study_/544739", "title"=>"Number of papers classified into general type of treatment procedure described in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:18:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874762"], "description"=>"†<p>Number of studies where the statistical methods were not reported or not clear.</p>*<p>In 4% (10/247) of the studies which used statistics, it was unclear or uncertain what statistical method had been used, i.e. a p-value or statistical significance was indicated, but no other methodological details were reported.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "was", "reported"], "article_id"=>545218, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_where_the_statistical_method_was_not_reported_or_was_unclear_/545218", "title"=>"Number of studies where the statistical method was not reported or was unclear.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:26:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874559"], "description"=>"†<p>4% (12/271) of all included studies had no record of animal numbers in either the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> or <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824#s2\" target=\"_blank\">results</a> sections.</p><p><b>Note:</b> Studies were assessed according to whether the exact number of animals used was reported (e.g. 50 rats divided into 5 treatment groups comprising 10 rats each), the number of animals could be estimated (e.g. 50 rats divided into 5 groups or treatments comprised 8–12 rats) or the number of animals was not clearly stated (e.g. treatments were applied to 5 groups of rats).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "numbers"], "article_id"=>545014, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_animal_numbers_in_the_methods_and_results_sections_/545014", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting animal numbers in the methods and results sections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:23:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874586"], "description"=>"†<p>43% (117/271) of the studies reported the age of the animals used in the main experiment; 46% (124/271) of studies reported the weight of the animals used in the main experiment; 24% (66/271) of the papers reported neither the weight nor the age of the animals used, whilst 13% (36/271) reported both weight and age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies"], "article_id"=>545046, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_the_age_and_weight_of_the_animals_/545046", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting the age and weight of the animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:24:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874619"], "description"=>"†<p>Numbers of studies in phase 2 that were assessed independently by two assessors and used a statistical method; numbers in each row sum to twice the number of studies.</p>*<p>Of the 48 studies assessed in more detail, and that used and described a statistical method, 87% (34/39) were judged to have used a correct statistical method, and in 12% (5/39) of the papers assessed there was insufficient information reported in the publication to be able to make this judgement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies"], "article_id"=>545076, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_that_use_an_appropriate_statistical_method_/545076", "title"=>"Number of studies that use an appropriate statistical method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:24:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874421"], "description"=>"†<p>In phase 2 of the survey all 48 studies were assessed independently by two assessors, therefore numbers in each row sum to twice the number of studies.</p>*<p>The experimental unit (e.g. a single animal or a group of animals) was not clearly identified in 13% (12/96) of the studies assessed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies"], "article_id"=>544879, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_that_clearly_identified_the_experimental_unit_/544879", "title"=>"Number of studies that clearly identified the experimental unit.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:21:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874723"], "description"=>"†<p>In phase 2 of the survey all 48 studies were assessed independently by two assessors, therefore numbers in each row sum to twice the number of studies.</p>*<p>Only 8% (4/48) of the 48 studies presented raw data for individual animals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies"], "article_id"=>545181, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_reporting_raw_data_for_individual_animals_/545181", "title"=>"Number of studies reporting raw data for individual animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:26:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874902"], "description"=>"<p>Blinding would usually be expected to be used, and reported, in those studies where qualitative scores were used. The percentage of papers which reported using blinding where one or more qualitative variables were used; All = 14% (5/35); Mouse = 0% (0/9); Primate = 36% (4/11) and Rat = 7% (1/15).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["studies", "qualitative", "scores"], "article_id"=>545358, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_studies_that_used_qualitative_scores_reporting_blinding_/545358", "title"=>"Number of studies that used qualitative scores reporting blinding.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874461"], "description"=>"†<p>68% (185/271) of all studies reported the results of one experiment, but in 6% (16/271) of all the studies it was unclear whether one or more experiments were being described.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["experiments", "reported"], "article_id"=>544918, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Immunology", "Developmental Biology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Carol Kilkenny", "Nick Parsons", "Ed Kadyszewski", "Michael F. W. Festing", "Innes C. Cuthill", "Derek Fry", "Jane Hutton", "Douglas G. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007824.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_experiments_reported_in_each_study_/544918", "title"=>"Number of experiments reported in each study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-11-30 01:21:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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