A Wireless Brain-Machine Interface for Real-Time Speech Synthesis
Publication Date
December 09, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Frank H. Guenther, Jonathan S. Brumberg, E. Joseph Wright, Alfonso Nieto Castanon, et al
Volume
4
Issue
12
Pages
e8218
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008218
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20011034
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784218
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20011034
Web of Science
000272829800009
Scopus
76849106481
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/wireless-brainmachine-interface-realtime-speech-synthesis
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CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A wireless brain-machine interface for real-time speech synthesis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Frank H.", "last_name"=>"Guenther", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003640507"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan S.", "last_name"=>"Brumberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"35104384600"}, {"first_name"=>"E.", "last_name"=>"Joseph Wright", "scopus_author_id"=>"36627371500"}, {"first_name"=>"Alfonso", "last_name"=>"Nieto-Castanon", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507099776"}, {"first_name"=>"Jason A.", "last_name"=>"Tourville", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602598255"}, {"first_name"=>"Mikhail", "last_name"=>"Panko", "scopus_author_id"=>"35748794900"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Law", "scopus_author_id"=>"35748988800"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven A.", "last_name"=>"Siebert", "scopus_author_id"=>"35749091200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jess L.", "last_name"=>"Bartels", "scopus_author_id"=>"24605100800"}, {"first_name"=>"Dinal S.", "last_name"=>"Andreasen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8692369700"}, {"first_name"=>"Princewill", "last_name"=>"Ehirim", "scopus_author_id"=>"8692369900"}, {"first_name"=>"Hui", "last_name"=>"Mao", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198704628"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip R.", "last_name"=>"Kennedy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202257814"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"76849106481", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0008218", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"20011034", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-76849106481", "pui"=>"359080148"}, "id"=>"4076fc21-c0a8-3a5e-a9de-12281bb48d46", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) involving electrodes implanted into the human cerebral cortex have recently been developed in an attempt to restore function to profoundly paralyzed individuals. Current BMIs for restoring communication can provide important capabilities via a typing process, but unfortunately they are only capable of slow communication rates. In the current study we use a novel approach to speech restoration in which we decode continuous auditory parameters for a real-time speech synthesizer from neuronal activity in motor cortex during attempted speech. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neural signals recorded by a Neurotrophic Electrode implanted in a speech-related region of the left precentral gyrus of a human volunteer suffering from locked-in syndrome, characterized by near-total paralysis with spared cognition, were transmitted wirelessly across the scalp and used to drive a speech synthesizer. A Kalman filter-based decoder translated the neural signals generated during attempted speech into continuous parameters for controlling a synthesizer that provided immediate (within 50 ms) auditory feedback of the decoded sound. Accuracy of the volunteer's vowel productions with the synthesizer improved quickly with practice, with a 25% improvement in average hit rate (from 45% to 70%) and 46% decrease in average endpoint error from the first to the last block of a three-vowel task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the feasibility of neural prostheses that may have the potential to provide near-conversational synthetic speech output for individuals with severely impaired speech motor control. They also provide an initial glimpse into the functional properties of neurons in speech motor cortical areas.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/wireless-brainmachine-interface-realtime-speech-synthesis", "reader_count"=>276, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>16, "Researcher"=>63, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>86, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>26, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>19}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Computer Science"=>33, "Engineering"=>67, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>22, "Neuroscience"=>24, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>8, "Psychology"=>23, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Linguistics"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>22}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>23}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>67}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>33}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>14, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "India"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>5}, "group_count"=>22}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872632"], "description"=>"<p>Reconstructed values of the first (bottom) and second (middle) formant frequencies (in Mel units) are shown (black lines) along with the formant frequencies present in the stimulus being mimicked (gray lines).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline", "regression", "reconstruction", "intended", "formant", "frequencies", "attempted", "synchrony"], "article_id"=>543072, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_offline_ridge_regression_reconstruction_of_intended_formant_frequencies_while_the_participant_attempted_to_speak_in_synchrony_with_a_speech_stimulus_/543072", "title"=>"Results of offline ridge regression reconstruction of intended formant frequencies while the participant attempted to speak in synchrony with a speech stimulus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:51:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/433018"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) involving electrodes implanted into the human cerebral cortex have recently been developed in an attempt to restore function to profoundly paralyzed individuals. Current BMIs for restoring communication can provide important capabilities via a typing process, but unfortunately they are only capable of slow communication rates. In the current study we use a novel approach to speech restoration in which we decode continuous auditory parameters for a real-time speech synthesizer from neuronal activity in motor cortex during attempted speech.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Neural signals recorded by a Neurotrophic Electrode implanted in a speech-related region of the left precentral gyrus of a human volunteer suffering from locked-in syndrome, characterized by near-total paralysis with spared cognition, were transmitted wirelessly across the scalp and used to drive a speech synthesizer. A Kalman filter-based decoder translated the neural signals generated during attempted speech into continuous parameters for controlling a synthesizer that provided immediate (within 50 ms) auditory feedback of the decoded sound. Accuracy of the volunteer's vowel productions with the synthesizer improved quickly with practice, with a 25% improvement in average hit rate (from 45% to 70%) and 46% decrease in average endpoint error from the first to the last block of a three-vowel task.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our results support the feasibility of neural prostheses that may have the potential to provide near-conversational synthetic speech output for individuals with severely impaired speech motor control. They also provide an initial glimpse into the functional properties of neurons in speech motor cortical areas.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wireless", "brain-machine", "interface", "Real-time", "synthesis"], "article_id"=>145438, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Wireless_Brain_Machine_Interface_for_Real_Time_Speech_Synthesis/145438", "title"=>"A Wireless Brain-Machine Interface for Real-Time Speech Synthesis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 01:30:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872190"], "description"=>"<p>Black circles and curved arrows represent neurons and axonal projections, respectively, in the neural circuitry for speech motor output. The volunteer's stroke-induced lesion in the efferent motor pathways (red X) disconnects motor plans represented in the cerebral cortex from the speech motoneurons, thus disabling speech output while sparing somatic, auditory, and visual sensation as well as speech motor planning centers in cerebral cortex. Signals collected from an electrode implanted in the subject's speech motor cortex are amplified and sent wirelessly across the scalp as FM radio signals. The signals are then routed to an electrophysiology recording system for further amplification, analog-to-digital conversion, and spike sorting. The sorted spikes are sent to a Neural Decoder which translates them into commands for a Speech Synthesizer. Audio signals from the synthesizer are fed back to the subject in real time. [Abbreviation: PrCG  =  precentral gyrus.]</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain-machine", "interface", "Real-time", "synthetic"], "article_id"=>542644, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_the_brain_machine_interface_for_real_time_synthetic_speech_production_/542644", "title"=>"Schematic of the brain-machine interface for real-time synthetic speech production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:44:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872709"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) Performance measures as a function of block number within a session, averaged across all sessions: (A) hit rate, (B) movement time, and (C) endpoint error. (D) Average endpoint error as a function of session number. (E–F) Average formant trajectories for utterances in (E) the last block of all sessions, and (F) successful trials in all blocks and sessions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vowel", "Real-time"], "article_id"=>543159, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_for_vowel_production_task_with_real_time_synthesizer_/543159", "title"=>"Results for vowel production task with real-time synthesizer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:52:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872424"], "description"=>"<p>The first peak is representative of units with “poor” tuning, the second peak represents units with “average” tuning, and the right distribution tail represents units with “good” tuning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "formant", "tuning", "strengths", "preferred", "averaged"], "article_id"=>542868, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_unit_correlation_coefficients_indicative_of_formant_tuning_strengths_in_the_unit_s_preferred_direction_averaged_across_sessions_/542868", "title"=>"Distribution of unit correlation coefficients (indicative of formant tuning strengths in the unit's preferred direction) averaged across sessions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:47:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872270"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Spectrogram of the utterance “good doggy” with the trajectories of the first three formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3) clearly visible as bright bands of high energy. (B) Approximate locations of the monophthongal vowels of English plotted on the plane formed by the first two formant frequencies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies"], "article_id"=>542722, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Formant_frequencies_in_speech_/542722", "title"=>"Formant frequencies in speech.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:45:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872351"], "description"=>"<p><b>Individual units</b>: Black arrows represent the formant tuning of individual units in polar coordinates, with angle representing the preferred direction of movement and arrow length representing the tuning strength (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for details). The strength of tuning to each possible direction of movement in formant space is computed as the average correlation (across sessions) between each unit's firing rate and the target formant position along this direction. The preferred direction of movement is then computed as the direction with maximal tuning strength among all possible directions. <b>Neural ensemble</b>: The black curve represents the formant tuning of the neural ensemble in polar coordinates, with angles representing each possible direction of movement and distance from origin representing the tuning strength. Green lines represent the directions of movement in formant space of the three target sounds used for training, and the two small circles along the neural ensemble tuning curve represent the average strength of the correlations between firing rates and F1 (r = 0.49, p<.001), and F2 (r = .57, p<.001), respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tuning", "units", "neural"], "article_id"=>542795, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Formant_tuning_of_individual_units_and_of_the_neural_ensemble_/542795", "title"=>"Formant tuning of individual units and of the neural ensemble.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:46:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872517"], "description"=>"<p>Tuning curves (black) and 95% confidence intervals (gray) are computed as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218#s4\" target=\"_blank\"><i>Methods</i></a><i>: Formant tuning analyses</i>. Tuning strength is indicated by the correlation between unit firing rates and formant frequency. The three units shown are primarily tuned to changes in F2, illustrated by relatively low values at each horizontal direction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tuning", "curves", "tuned"], "article_id"=>542967, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_tuning_curves_for_representative_good_top_average_middle_and_poor_bottom_tuned_units_/542967", "title"=>"Sample tuning curves for representative good (top), average (middle), and poor (bottom) tuned units.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:49:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/872840"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Left panels: Axial (top) and sagittal (bottom) slices showing brain activity along the precentral gyrus during a word generation fMRI task prior to implantation. Red lines denote pre-central sulcus; yellow lines denote central sulcus. Right panels: Corresponding images from a post-implant CT scan showing location of electrode. (B) 3D CT image showing electrode wire entering dura mater. Subcutaneous electronics are visible above the electrode wire, on top of the skull.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cerebral"], "article_id"=>543288, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Frank H. Guenther", "Jonathan S. Brumberg", "E. Joseph Wright", "Alfonso Nieto-Castanon", "Jason A. Tourville", "Mikhail Panko", "Robert Law", "Steven A. Siebert", "Jess L. Bartels", "Dinal S. Andreasen", "Princewill Ehirim", "Hui Mao", "Philip R. Kennedy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electrode_location_in_the_participant_s_cerebral_cortex_/543288", "title"=>"Electrode location in the participant's cerebral cortex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-09 00:54:48"}

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Relative Metric

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