Social Networks Shape the Transmission Dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus
Publication Date
June 23, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Camila Malta Romano, Isabel M. V. Guedes De Carvalho Mello, Leda F. Jamal, Fernando Lucas De Melo, et al
Volume
5
Issue
6
Pages
e11170
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011170
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20585651
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890415
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20585651
Web of Science
000279135400004
Scopus
77955285396
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/social-networks-shape-transmission-dynamics-hepatitis-c-virus-12
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Social Networks Shape the Transmission Dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Camila Malta", "last_name"=>"Romano"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabel M. V. Guedes", "last_name"=>"de Carvalho-Mello"}, {"first_name"=>"Leda F.", "last_name"=>"Jamal"}, {"first_name"=>"Fernando Lucas", "last_name"=>"de Melo"}, {"first_name"=>"Atila", "last_name"=>"Iamarino"}, {"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Motoki"}, {"first_name"=>"João Renato Rebello", "last_name"=>"Pinho"}, {"first_name"=>"Edward C.", "last_name"=>"Holmes"}, {"first_name"=>"Paolo Marinho de Andrade", "last_name"=>"Zanotto"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"20585651", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011170"}, "id"=>"4caa10e4-29ee-32d2-8f84-564f8ee21d4f", "abstract"=>"Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 million people worldwide, and is a major public health problem in Brazil, where over 1% of the population may be infected and where multiple viral genotypes co-circulate. Chronically infected individuals are both the source of transmission to others and are at risk for HCV-related diseases, such as liver cancer and cirrhosis. Before the adoption of anti-HCV control measures in blood banks, this virus was mainly transmitted via blood transfusion. Today, needle sharing among injecting drug users is the most common form of HCV transmission. Of particular importance is that HCV prevalence is growing in non-risk groups. Since there is no vaccine against HCV, it is important to determine the factors that control viral transmission in order to develop more efficient control measures. However, despite the health costs associated with HCV, the factors that determine the spread of virus at the epidemiological scale are often poorly understood. Here, we sequenced partial NS5b gene sequences sampled from blood samples collected from 591 patients in São Paulo state, Brazil. We show that different viral genotypes entered São Paulo at different times, grew at different rates, and are associated with different age groups and risk behaviors. In particular, subtype 1b is older and grew more slowly than subtypes 1a and 3a, and is associated with multiple age classes. In contrast, subtypes 1a and 3b are associated with younger people infected more recently, possibly with higher rates of sexual transmission. The transmission dynamics of HCV in São Paulo therefore vary by subtype and are determined by a combination of age, risk exposure and underlying social network. We conclude that social factors may play a key role in determining the rate and pattern of HCV spread, and should influence future intervention policies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/social-networks-shape-transmission-dynamics-hepatitis-c-virus-12", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>18}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>6, "Denmark"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420093", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420135", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420166", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420197", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420218"], "description"=>"<div><p>Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 million people worldwide, and is a major public health problem in Brazil, where over 1% of the population may be infected and where multiple viral genotypes co-circulate. Chronically infected individuals are both the source of transmission to others and are at risk for HCV-related diseases, such as liver cancer and cirrhosis. Before the adoption of anti-HCV control measures in blood banks, this virus was mainly transmitted via blood transfusion. Today, needle sharing among injecting drug users is the most common form of HCV transmission. Of particular importance is that HCV prevalence is growing in non-risk groups. Since there is no vaccine against HCV, it is important to determine the factors that control viral transmission in order to develop more efficient control measures. However, despite the health costs associated with HCV, the factors that determine the spread of virus at the epidemiological scale are often poorly understood. Here, we sequenced partial NS5b gene sequences sampled from blood samples collected from 591 patients in São Paulo state, Brazil. We show that different viral genotypes entered São Paulo at different times, grew at different rates, and are associated with different age groups and risk behaviors. In particular, subtype 1b is older and grew more slowly than subtypes 1a and 3a, and is associated with multiple age classes. In contrast, subtypes 1a and 3b are associated with younger people infected more recently, possibly with higher rates of sexual transmission. The transmission dynamics of HCV in São Paulo therefore vary by subtype and are determined by a combination of age, risk exposure and underlying social network. We conclude that social factors may play a key role in determining the rate and pattern of HCV spread, and should influence future intervention policies.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["networks", "hepatitis"], "article_id"=>142941, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Biological Sciences", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Camila Malta Romano", "Isabel M. V. Guedes de Carvalho-Mello", "Leda F. Jamal", "Fernando Lucas de Melo", "Atila Iamarino", "Marco Motoki", "João Renato Rebello Pinho", "Edward C. Holmes", "Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Social_Networks_Shape_the_Transmission_Dynamics_of_Hepatitis_C_Virus/142941", "title"=>"Social Networks Shape the Transmission Dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-06-23 00:49:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843438"], "description"=>"<p>We show Maximum Clade Credibility (MCC) trees for the main HCV genotypes in São Paulo. Branches are colored according to the geographic locality of sampling, with IDUs shown as red dots at the tips. The highest posterior probability for the root of all trees revealed that the epicenter of HCV epidemics was the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Highlighted sectors indicate ancestral nodes with posterior probability >50% located outside the metropolitan area of São Paulo (green in Ribeirão Preto and blue in São José do Rio Preto). Branch lengths are scaled in years shown as concentric rings of 5 years. The grey concentric rings indicate that the epidemic expansion of HCV-1a in São José do Rio Preto and Ribeirão Preto was synchronized with the growth in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Most of the IDUs are located within the HCV-1a and HCV-3a subtypes. Sectors highlighted in red indicate IDU clusters with posterior probability >50%. All trees depicted non-IDU as the root state with the highest posterior probability.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["idu"], "article_id"=>513896, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Cancer", "Computational Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Camila Malta Romano", "Isabel M. V. Guedes de Carvalho-Mello", "Leda F. Jamal", "Fernando Lucas de Melo", "Atila Iamarino", "Marco Motoki", "João Renato Rebello Pinho", "Edward C. Holmes", "Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogeographic_and_IDU_risk_analysis_/513896", "title"=>"Phylogeographic and IDU risk analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-23 01:04:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843546"], "description"=>"<p>The colored lines in the strict clock Bayesian skyline plots show the superimposed median values (<i>y</i>-axis) of relative genetic diversity (<i>Ne.g</i>, where <i>Ne</i> is the effective population size and <i>g</i> the inter-host generation time) through time in years for each subtype. Vertical arrows indicate the introduction of control measures in 1980 (end of paid donation) and 1993 (implementation of screening for HCV in blood banks) aimed to hamper HCV spread by blood products in Brazil.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["1b"], "article_id"=>513999, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Cancer", "Computational Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Camila Malta Romano", "Isabel M. V. Guedes de Carvalho-Mello", "Leda F. Jamal", "Fernando Lucas de Melo", "Atila Iamarino", "Marco Motoki", "João Renato Rebello Pinho", "Edward C. Holmes", "Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patterns_of_population_growth_for_HCV1a_1b_and_3a_/513999", "title"=>"Patterns of population growth for HCV1a, 1b and 3a.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-23 01:06:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843628"], "description"=>"<p>Dotted color-filled distributions at the back of the figure show the relative densities of estimates of the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) of HCV-1a (red), HCV-1b (blue) and HCV-3a (green). The TMRCA relative densities (left <i>y</i>-axis) depict the frequency normalized to unity of TMRCA values sampled during the MCMC runs in BEAST. Full line distributions in the foreground show the percentage of HCV carriers that were born in a specific year (<i>x</i>-axis). Patient age distributions were color-coded in the same fashion as the TMRCA. Horizontal arrows, connecting the mode of age of birth of patients with the TMRCA peak value for both HCV-3a and HCV-1a, show the temporal correlation between each subtype origin of spread and the age of its carriers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary biology/microbial evolution and genomics", "infectious diseases/viral infections", "public health and epidemiology/infectious diseases", "public health and epidemiology/social and behavioral determinants of health"], "article_id"=>514074, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Cancer", "Computational Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Camila Malta Romano", "Isabel M. V. Guedes de Carvalho-Mello", "Leda F. Jamal", "Fernando Lucas de Melo", "Atila Iamarino", "Marco Motoki", "João Renato Rebello Pinho", "Edward C. Holmes", "Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viral_and_host_age_structure_/514074", "title"=>"Viral and host age structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-23 01:07:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843705"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) The cumulative frequency distribution <i>P</i>(<i>k</i>) versus the number of partners (<i>k</i>) shows that the low connectivity end of this network (individuals with 5 or less sexual partners) is associated with a higher prevalence of HIV-1b infected individuals compared to the high connectivity heavy tail-end of the network, which is in turn more frequently associated by HCV-1a and 3a carriers. <b>B</b>) Social, clinical and transmission risk factors are shown in increasing frequency in relation to the high-connectivity group that includes all HCV patients with 50 or more sexual contacts (dark grey) compared to the low-connectivity group that includes all HCV patients with 5 or less sexual contacts (light grey). The final two columns on the right show a preponderance of males with increased risk factors and behaviors. The high frequency of blood transfusions among the low-connectivity group shows its importance for HCV transmission among the general population at large up until the early 1990's.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hcv"], "article_id"=>514160, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Cancer", "Computational Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Camila Malta Romano", "Isabel M. V. Guedes de Carvalho-Mello", "Leda F. Jamal", "Fernando Lucas de Melo", "Atila Iamarino", "Marco Motoki", "João Renato Rebello Pinho", "Edward C. Holmes", "Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scale_free_sexual_contact_network_of_HCV_carriers_/514160", "title"=>"Scale-free sexual contact network of HCV carriers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-23 01:09:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843784"], "description"=>"<p>Growth rate (<i>r</i>) is the median values estimated by the growth model (exponential for HCV-1a and 3a and logistic for HCV-1b) that best-fit the data. Nucleotide substitution rates per site, per year and TMRCAs were estimated in Bayesian skyline runs using a relaxed uncorrelated lognormal molecular clock. The <i>R</i> values were estimated from data generated by BEAST and GENIE (in parenthesis) for mean duration of infectiousness (<i>D</i>) values of 2, 5, 10 and 15 years. BT = blood transfusion; IDU = injecting drug user; NIDU = non-injection drug use; unknown = patients with no history of being arrested, blood transfusion, tattoo, injecting or non-injecting drug use, HIV negative and no HCV positive partners.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiologic", "parameters"], "article_id"=>514235, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Cancer", "Computational Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Camila Malta Romano", "Isabel M. V. Guedes de Carvalho-Mello", "Leda F. Jamal", "Fernando Lucas de Melo", "Atila Iamarino", "Marco Motoki", "João Renato Rebello Pinho", "Edward C. Holmes", "Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011170.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factor_demographic_and_epidemiologic_parameters_of_HCV_/514235", "title"=>"Risk factor, demographic and epidemiologic parameters of HCV.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-06-23 01:10:35"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
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Relative Metric

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