The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin
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{"title"=>"The whale pump: Marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joe", "last_name"=>"Roman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201876634"}, {"first_name"=>"James J.", "last_name"=>"McCarthy", "scopus_author_id"=>"16513733200"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149426807", "sgr"=>"78149426807", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013255", "pmid"=>"20949007", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"359930909"}, "id"=>"2ca761ed-7352-3a3d-b752-b13665d9281f", "abstract"=>"It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/whale-pump-marine-mammals-enhance-primary-productivity-coastal-basin-1", "reader_count"=>357, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>69, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>80, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>57, "Other"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>60, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>20}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>69, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>80, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>57, "Other"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>60, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>20}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>77, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>223, "Design"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>27, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>27}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>223}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>77}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>16, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Thailand"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "Mexico"=>4, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825277"], "description"=>"<p>Seasonal estimates based on the percentage of total consumption in the Gulf of Maine <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255#pone.0013255-Kenney1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cetaceans", "nitrogen"], "article_id"=>495648, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_role_of_cetaceans_in_the_nitrogen_cycle_by_season_/495648", "title"=>"The role of cetaceans in the nitrogen cycle by season.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:57:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/824962"], "description"=>"<p>In the common concept of the biological pump, zooplankton feed in the euphotic zone and export nutrients via sinking fecal pellets, and vertical migration. Fish typically release nutrients at the same depth at which they feed. Excretion for marine mammals, tethered to the surface for respiration, is expected to be shallower in the water column than where they feed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conceptual"], "article_id"=>495331, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_conceptual_model_of_the_whale_pump_/495331", "title"=>"A conceptual model of the whale pump.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:56:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825081"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Net NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> production vs. fecal PON concentration in time course incubations of material collected in whale fecal plumes. Samples 1 and 2 had the highest initial NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> concentrations, yet their rates of NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> production ranged from the second lowest to the highest in the entire data set. (<b>b</b>) NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> concentration vs. incubation time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incubation", "time-course", "experiments", "humpback", "samples", "stellwagen", "gulf"], "article_id"=>495450, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shipboard_incubation_time_course_experiments_on_Humpback_whale_samples_collected_on_Stellwagen_Bank_Gulf_of_Maine_/495450", "title"=>"Shipboard incubation time-course experiments on Humpback whale samples collected on Stellwagen Bank, Gulf of Maine.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:56:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825187"], "description"=>"<p>Point-source pollution, industrial emissions of nitrogen, and allochthonous sources from Townsend <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255#pone.0013255-Townsend1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>. The range of historical estimates are adapted from Lotze <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255#pone.0013255-Lotze2\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>. Sources that are not expected to be influenced by anthropogenic change, such as offshore transport from Scotian Shelf water, are not included in this graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flux", "nitrogen", "gulf", "maine"], "article_id"=>495555, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_flux_of_nitrogen_in_the_Gulf_of_Maine_a_at_present_and_b_before_commercial_hunting_/495555", "title"=>"The flux of nitrogen in the Gulf of Maine (a) at present and (b) before commercial hunting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:57:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825387"], "description"=>"<p>Influx and loss from Townsend <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255#pone.0013255-Townsend1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>.</p><p>Coastal point sources from Sowles <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255#pone.0013255-Sowles1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitrogen", "flux", "gulf"], "article_id"=>495760, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contemporary_nitrogen_flux_in_the_Gulf_of_Maine_/495760", "title"=>"Contemporary nitrogen flux in the Gulf of Maine.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:58:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825358"], "description"=>"<p>Total annual nitrogen released is 365 x N excreted day<sup>−1</sup> for resident toothed whales and pinnipeds; for baleen whales, which migrate seasonally out of the study area, the total nitrogen released is expected to be 83% of annual excretion <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255#pone.0013255-Lockyer1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mammals", "nitrogen", "gulf", "maine"], "article_id"=>495726, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_common_and_historically_important_marine_mammals_on_the_nitrogen_cycle_in_the_Gulf_of_Maine_ecosystem_/495726", "title"=>"Effect of common and historically important marine mammals on the nitrogen cycle in the Gulf of Maine ecosystem.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:58:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/825414"], "description"=>"<p>Body mass and consumption rates for cetaceans and seals in the Gulf of Maine.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "cetaceans", "seals", "gulf"], "article_id"=>495777, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Joe Roman", "James J. McCarthy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_and_consumption_rates_for_cetaceans_and_seals_in_the_Gulf_of_Maine_/495777", "title"=>"Body mass and consumption rates for cetaceans and seals in the Gulf of Maine.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 22:58:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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