A Reliability-Generalization Study of Journal Peer Reviews: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis of Inter-Rater Reliability and Its Determinants
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{"title"=>"A reliability-generalization study of journal peer reviews: A multilevel meta-analysis of inter-rater reliability and its determinants", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lutz", "last_name"=>"Bornmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"8850037200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rüdiger", "last_name"=>"Mutz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603503911"}, {"first_name"=>"Hans Dieter", "last_name"=>"Daniel", "scopus_author_id"=>"9746425500"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78650797313", "sgr"=>"78650797313", "pui"=>"361026054", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21179459", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0014331"}, "id"=>"9732dfcf-4ec8-3fbc-80ae-3ed1f3e817f7", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: This paper presents the first meta-analysis for the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of journal peer reviews. IRR is defined as the extent to which two or more independent reviews of the same scientific document agree. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Altogether, 70 reliability coefficients (Cohen's Kappa, intra-class correlation [ICC], and Pearson product-moment correlation [r]) from 48 studies were taken into account in the meta-analysis. The studies were based on a total of 19,443 manuscripts; on average, each study had a sample size of 311 manuscripts (minimum: 28, maximum: 1983). The results of the meta-analysis confirmed the findings of the narrative literature reviews published to date: The level of IRR (mean ICC/r2=.34, mean Cohen's Kappa=.17) was low. To explain the study-to-study variation of the IRR coefficients, meta-regression analyses were calculated using seven covariates. Two covariates that emerged in the meta-regression analyses as statistically significant to gain an approximate homogeneity of the intra-class correlations indicated that, firstly, the more manuscripts that a study is based on, the smaller the reported IRR coefficients are. Secondly, if the information of the rating system for reviewers was reported in a study, then this was associated with a smaller IRR coefficient than if the information was not conveyed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies that report a high level of IRR are to be considered less credible than those with a low level of IRR. According to our meta-analysis the IRR of peer assessments is quite limited and needs improvement (e.g., reader system).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reliabilitygeneralization-study-journal-peer-reviews-multilevel-metaanalysis-interrater-reliability", "reader_count"=>123, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>14, "Student > Master"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>14, "Student > Master"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>6, "Chemistry"=>5, "Computer Science"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>31, "Social Sciences"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>23}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>31}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>8}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>6}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>9, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Belgium"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812450"], "description"=>"<p>The 95% confidence interval of the mean value (vertical line) is shaded grey. Predicted values for the same author and year but with different letters (e.g., Herzog 2005a and Herzog 2005b) belong to the same study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inter-rater", "coefficient", "ascending"], "article_id"=>482817, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Lutz Bornmann", "Rüdiger Mutz", "Hans-Dieter Daniel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014331.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Forest_plot_of_the_predicted_inter_rater_reliability_Bayes_estimate_for_each_study_random_effects_model_without_covariates_with_95_confidence_interval_as_bars_for_each_reliability_coefficient_sorted_in_ascending_order_/482817", "title"=>"Forest plot of the predicted inter-rater reliability (Bayes estimate) for each study (random effects model without covariates) with 95% confidence interval (as bars) for each reliability coefficient (sorted in ascending order).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:49:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812586"], "description"=>"<p><b>Note</b>: For each categorical variable, one category was chosen as a reference category (RC, e.g., RC = Social Sciences for the categorical variable discipline). For categorical variables, effect for each predictor variable (a dummy variable representing one of the categories) is a regression coefficient (Coeff) that should be interpreted in relation to its standard error (SE) and the effect of the reference category. Variance components for level 1 are derived from the data, but variance components at level 2 and level 3 indicate the amount of variance that can be explained by differences between studies (level 3) and differences between single reliability coefficients nested within studies (level 2). The loglikelihood test provided by SAS/proc mixed (−2LL) can be used to compare different models, as can also the Bayes Information Criteria (BIC). The smaller the BIC, the better the model is.</p><p>*p<.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["meta-analyses", "metric", "inter-rater-reliabilities"], "article_id"=>482955, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Lutz Bornmann", "Rüdiger Mutz", "Hans-Dieter Daniel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014331.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multilevel_meta_analyses_of_the_metric_inter_rater_reliabilities_Fisher_Z_r_tt_or_r_/482955", "title"=>"Multilevel meta-analyses of the metric inter-rater-reliabilities (Fisher-Z √r<sub>tt</sub> or r).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:50:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812548"], "description"=>"<p><b>Note:</b> RC = reference category in meta-regression analysis. Unknown = this information is missing in a study.</p><p>*Rating systems are classified as categorical, if they have nine or fewer categories; in case of more than nine categories, the classification is made as metric <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014331#pone.0014331-Muthn1\" target=\"_blank\">[110]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covariates", "included", "meta-regression", "analyses", "studies", "44"], "article_id"=>482918, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Lutz Bornmann", "Rüdiger Mutz", "Hans-Dieter Daniel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014331.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_the_covariates_included_in_the_meta_regression_analyses_n_8202_8202_32_studies_with_44_coefficients_/482918", "title"=>"Description of the covariates included in the meta-regression analyses (n = 32 studies with 44 coefficients).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:50:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812614"], "description"=>"<p><b>Notes</b>: To obtain the reliability estimates (ICC/r<sup>2</sup>) shown in this table, correlations (r) were squared. N = number of coefficients included. Levels = number of levels in the meta-analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reliabilities"], "article_id"=>482985, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Lutz Bornmann", "Rüdiger Mutz", "Hans-Dieter Daniel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014331.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_mean_reliabilities_with_confidence_interval_/482985", "title"=>"Overview of mean reliabilities with confidence interval.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 21:50:42"}

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