Dominating Clasp of the Financial Sector Revealed by Partial Correlation Analysis of the Stock Market
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{"title"=>"Dominating clasp of the financial sector revealed by partial correlation analysis of the stock market", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dror Y.", "last_name"=>"Kenett", "scopus_author_id"=>"35275313400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michele", "last_name"=>"Tumminello", "scopus_author_id"=>"8647060800"}, {"first_name"=>"Asaf", "last_name"=>"Madi", "scopus_author_id"=>"24741187000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gitit", "last_name"=>"Gur-Gershgoren", "scopus_author_id"=>"36836051600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosario N.", "last_name"=>"Mantegna", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006027403"}, {"first_name"=>"Eshel", "last_name"=>"Ben-Jacob", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005078550"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"361048262", "pmid"=>"21188140", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0015032", "sgr"=>"78650887522", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78650887522"}, "id"=>"ab99eb04-b485-33b4-b6e3-1372b9b6e1d9", "abstract"=>"What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market? Can a correlation analysis provide an answer to this question? In the past, correlation based networks have been proposed as a tool to uncover the underlying backbone of the market. Correlation based networks represent the stocks and their relationships, which are then investigated using different network theory methodologies. Here we introduce a new concept to tackle the above question--the partial correlation network. Partial correlation is a measure of how the correlation between two variables, e.g., stock returns, is affected by a third variable. By using it we define a proxy of stock influence, which is then used to construct partial correlation networks. The empirical part of this study is performed on a specific financial system, namely the set of 300 highly capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange, in the time period 2001-2003. By constructing the partial correlation network, unlike the case of standard correlation based networks, we find that stocks belonging to the financial sector and, in particular, to the investment services sub-sector, are the most influential stocks affecting the correlation profile of the system. Using a moving window analysis, we find that the strong influence of the financial stocks is conserved across time for the investigated trading period. Our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces controlling the correlation profile observed in a financial market.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dominating-clasp-financial-sector-revealed-partial-correlation-analysis-stock-market-2", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>9, "Computer Science"=>12, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>11, "Engineering"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>10, "Physics and Astronomy"=>12, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>12}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>10}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>11}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Pakistan"=>1, "United States"=>2, "China"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812167"], "description"=>"<p>Influence of economic sectors according to the outdegree in the partial correlation networks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sectors", "outdegree"], "article_id"=>482530, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_economic_sectors_according_to_the_outdegree_in_the_partial_correlation_networks_/482530", "title"=>"Influence of economic sectors according to the outdegree in the partial correlation networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:42:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811240"], "description"=>"<p>In this network we present how each sub-sector is affecting the other sub-sectors. The color of vertices is according to the economic sector each sub-sector belongs to. Specifically, basic materials (violet), capital goods (light green), conglomerates (orange), consumer cyclical (tan), consumer non cyclical (yellow), energy (blue), financial (green), healthcare (gray), services (cyan), technology (red), transportation (brown), and utilities (magenta). Sub-sectors with a positive relative influence according to Eq.(5) are labeled in the figure. Sub-sectors labeled with numbers are listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032#pone.0015032.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>. We find two main hubs in the network - the investment services and the insurance life sub-sectors. The thickness and gray level of links is proportional to the logarithm of the weight of the link.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["300", "grouped", "corresponding"], "article_id"=>481603, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PCPG_analysis_of_the_300_stocks_grouped_by_their_corresponding_sub_sector_/481603", "title"=>"PCPG analysis of the 300 stocks, grouped by their corresponding sub-sector.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:26:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812102"], "description"=>"<p>Economic sectors: weighted degree in the PMFG and PCPG.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["weighted", "pmfg"], "article_id"=>482469, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Economic_sectors_weighted_degree_in_the_PMFG_and_PCPG_/482469", "title"=>"Economic sectors: weighted degree in the PMFG and PCPG.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:41:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812138"], "description"=>"<p>Top 5 sub-sectors according to weighted degree in the PMFG and in the PCPG.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sub-sectors", "weighted", "pmfg"], "article_id"=>482502, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Top_5_sub_sectors_according_to_weighted_degree_in_the_PMFG_and_in_the_PCPG_/482502", "title"=>"Top 5 sub-sectors according to weighted degree in the PMFG and in the PCPG.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:41:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404695", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/404701"], "description"=>"<div><p>What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market? Can a correlation analysis provide an answer to this question? In the past, correlation based networks have been proposed as a tool to uncover the underlying backbone of the market. Correlation based networks represent the stocks and their relationships, which are then investigated using different network theory methodologies. Here we introduce a new concept to tackle the above question—the partial correlation network. Partial correlation is a measure of how the correlation between two variables, e.g., stock returns, is affected by a third variable. By using it we define a proxy of stock influence, which is then used to construct partial correlation networks. The empirical part of this study is performed on a specific financial system, namely the set of 300 highly capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange, in the time period 2001–2003. By constructing the partial correlation network, unlike the case of standard correlation based networks, we find that stocks belonging to the financial sector and, in particular, to the investment services sub-sector, are the most influential stocks affecting the correlation profile of the system. Using a moving window analysis, we find that the strong influence of the financial stocks is conserved across time for the investigated trading period. Our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces controlling the correlation profile observed in a financial market.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dominating", "clasp", "revealed"], "article_id"=>139977, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dominating_Clasp_of_the_Financial_Sector_Revealed_by_Partial_Correlation_Analysis_of_the_Stock_Market/139977", "title"=>"Dominating Clasp of the Financial Sector Revealed by Partial Correlation Analysis of the Stock Market", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 02:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811917"], "description"=>"<p>Using a 22-day time window, we perform the PCTN in each window, and rank the importance of each stock according to the number of stocks it influenced. The stocks are ordered according to their average influence over time. Most influential stocks are at the bottom of the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032#pone-0015032-g009\" target=\"_blank\">figure 9</a> over the 10 most influential stocks are form the financial sector, 5 of them belonging to the sub-sector of investment services.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>482282, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Running_window_application_of_the_PCTN_/482282", "title"=>"Running window application of the PCTN.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:38:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811658"], "description"=>"<p>The thickness and gray level of links is proportional to the logarithm of the weight of the link. Links are labeled according to the weight. The color of vertices is according to the economic sector of activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pmfg"], "article_id"=>482029, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sector_undirected_network_associated_with_the_PMFG_standard_correlations_/482029", "title"=>"Sector (undirected) network associated with the PMFG (standard correlations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:33:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811342"], "description"=>"<p>Colors of vertices in the network are chosen according to the economic sector each stock belongs to. Specifically: basic materials (violet), capital goods (light green), conglomerates (orange), consumer cyclical (tan), consumer non cyclical (yellow), energy (blue), financial (green), healthcare (gray), services (cyan), technology (red), transportation (brown), and utilities (magenta).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["300"], "article_id"=>481710, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PCPG_partial_correlations_of_the_300_stocks_/481710", "title"=>"PCPG (partial correlations) of the 300 stocks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:28:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812019"], "description"=>"<p>Here, each time window corresponds to four months of trading. For each time window we perform the PCPG analysis, and compute the relative influence of each economic sub-sector. Here we present the results about just for the 11 sub-sectors of activity that show a positive relative influence in at least one time window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "physics", "mathematics"], "article_id"=>482383, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Running_window_application_of_the_PCPG_/482383", "title"=>"Running window application of the PCPG.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:39:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811505"], "description"=>"<p>The thickness and gray level of links is proportional to the logarithm of the weight of the link. The color of vertices is according to the economic sector of activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pmfg"], "article_id"=>481874, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sub_sector_undirected_network_associated_with_the_PMFG_standard_correlations_/481874", "title"=>"Sub-sector (undirected) network associated with the PMFG (standard correlations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:31:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811413"], "description"=>"<p>Colors of vertices in the network are chosen according to the economic sector each stock belongs to. Specifically: basic materials (violet), capital goods (light green), conglomerates (orange), consumer cyclical (tan), consumer non cyclical (yellow), energy (blue), financial (green), healthcare (gray), services (cyan), technology (red), transportation (brown), and utilities (magenta).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["300"], "article_id"=>481781, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PMFG_standard_correlations_of_the_300_stocks_/481781", "title"=>"PMFG (standard correlations) of the 300 stocks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:29:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811095"], "description"=>"<p>Top ten influential stocks according to the out-degree in both the partial correlation networks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stocks", "out-degree"], "article_id"=>481463, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Top_ten_influential_stocks_according_to_the_out_degree_in_both_the_partial_correlation_networks_/481463", "title"=>"Top ten influential stocks according to the out-degree in both the partial correlation networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:24:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/810949"], "description"=>"<p>The value is the one used in the paper.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures", "pctn", "connectivity", "parameter"], "article_id"=>481311, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_measures_of_PCTN_connectivity_as_function_of_the_parameter_/481311", "title"=>"Two measures of PCTN connectivity as function of the parameter .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:21:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811579"], "description"=>"<p>The thickness and gray level of links is proportional to the logarithm of the weight of the link. Links are labeled according to the weight. The color of vertices is according to the economic sector of activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pcpg"], "article_id"=>481950, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sector_directed_network_associated_with_the_PCPG_partial_correlations_/481950", "title"=>"Sector (directed) network associated with the PCPG (partial correlations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:32:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811807"], "description"=>"<p>Scatter plot of the quantity <b>(see Eq. 4)</b> as estimated from real data, and as reconstructed by using factor models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstructed"], "article_id"=>482175, "categories"=>["Physics", "Mathematics", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dror Y. Kenett", "Michele Tumminello", "Asaf Madi", "Gitit Gur-Gershgoren", "Rosario N. Mantegna", "Eshel Ben-Jacob"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015032.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scatter_plot_of_the_quantity_see_Eq_4_as_estimated_from_real_data_and_as_reconstructed_by_using_factor_models_/482175", "title"=>"Scatter plot of the quantity <b>(see Eq. 4)</b> as estimated from real data, and as reconstructed by using factor models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-20 00:36:15"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[318, 573, 707, 808, 912, 1021, 1093, 1150, 1214, 1302, 1370, 1431, 1494, 1568, 1629, 1698, 1775, 1829, 1889, 1954, 2007, 2060, 2128, 2170, 2208, 2247, 2311, 2357, 2410, 2453, 2525, 2602, 2660, 2715, 2764, 2818, 2863, 2905, 2970, 3018, 3072, 3127, 3179, 3241, 3298, 3341, 3384, 3433, 3474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[360, 670, 907, 1046, 1193, 1300, 1445, 1557, 1660, 1735, 1778, 1860, 1969, 2023, 2100, 2152, 2249, 2394, 2471, 2544, 2604, 2704, 2790, 2860, 2943, 3015, 3101, 3158, 3234, 3310, 3410, 3487, 3533, 3608, 3679, 3782, 3859, 3914, 3966, 4033, 4103, 4153, 4208, 4289, 4340, 4396, 4446, 4532, 4651]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[314, 590, 728, 851, 953, 1050, 1127, 1206, 1276, 1336, 1390, 1451, 1504, 1569, 1619, 1674, 1732, 1792, 1851, 1900, 1959, 2004, 2076, 2126, 2182, 2239, 2292, 2353, 2427, 2522, 2595, 2676, 2735, 2785, 2836, 2893, 2943, 2993, 3041, 3097, 3160, 3214, 3251, 3299, 3357, 3428, 3482, 3515, 3555]}]}
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