Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs
Publication Date
November 30, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
William G. Lindsley, Francoise M. Blachere, Robert E. Thewlis, Abhishek Vishnu, et al
Volume
5
Issue
11
Pages
e15100
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0015100
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21152051
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2994911
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21152051
Web of Science
000284755100071
Scopus
78649782426
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/measurements-airborne-influenza-virus-aerosol-particles-human-coughs
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Measurements of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"William G.", "last_name"=>"Lindsley", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602762177"}, {"first_name"=>"Francoise M.", "last_name"=>"Blachere", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801411136"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert E.", "last_name"=>"Thewlis", "scopus_author_id"=>"34873958900"}, {"first_name"=>"Abhishek", "last_name"=>"Vishnu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36515938100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristina A.", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"35975818700"}, {"first_name"=>"Gang", "last_name"=>"Cao", "scopus_author_id"=>"36997782200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan E.", "last_name"=>"Palmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36998029200"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen E.", "last_name"=>"Clark", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196909404"}, {"first_name"=>"Melanie A.", "last_name"=>"Fisher", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403500672"}, {"first_name"=>"Rashida", "last_name"=>"Khakoo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701854600"}, {"first_name"=>"Donald H.", "last_name"=>"Beezhold", "scopus_author_id"=>"35984383900"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"78649782426", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0015100", "pui"=>"360095119", "pmid"=>"21152051", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78649782426", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f7d49326-6d99-3cb7-91e4-418eb4bc3433", "abstract"=>"Influenza is thought to be communicated from person to person by multiple pathways. However, the relative importance of different routes of influenza transmission is unclear. To better understand the potential for the airborne spread of influenza, we measured the amount and size of aerosol particles containing influenza virus that were produced by coughing. Subjects were recruited from patients presenting at a student health clinic with influenza-like symptoms. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the volunteers and they were asked to cough three times into a spirometer. After each cough, the cough-generated aerosol was collected using a NIOSH two-stage bioaerosol cyclone sampler or an SKC BioSampler. The amount of influenza viral RNA contained in the samplers was analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qPCR) targeting the matrix gene M1. For half of the subjects, viral plaque assays were performed on the nasopharyngeal swabs and cough aerosol samples to determine if viable virus was present. Fifty-eight subjects were tested, of whom 47 were positive for influenza virus by qPCR. Influenza viral RNA was detected in coughs from 38 of these subjects (81%). Thirty-five percent of the influenza RNA was contained in particles>4 µm in aerodynamic diameter, while 23% was in particles 1 to 4 µm and 42% in particles<1 µm. Viable influenza virus was detected in the cough aerosols from 2 of 21 subjects with influenza. These results show that coughing by influenza patients emits aerosol particles containing influenza virus and that much of the viral RNA is contained within particles in the respirable size range. The results support the idea that the airborne route may be a pathway for influenza transmission, especially in the immediate vicinity of an influenza patient. Further research is needed on the viability of airborne influenza viruses and the risk of transmission.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/measurements-airborne-influenza-virus-aerosol-particles-human-coughs", "reader_count"=>94, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Engineering"=>13, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>21, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>21}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>13}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Vietnam"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816015"], "description"=>"<p>Influenza viral RNA was detected in the cough aerosols from 32 of 38 influenza-positive patients. This plot shows the number of viral copies per cough detected in aerosol particles collected in sampler tube 1 (>4 µm), tube 2 (1 to 4 µm) and the filter (<1 µm) for each patient, ordered from minimum to maximum. The particles collected in tube 2 and on the filter are respirable (able to reach the alveolar region).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viral", "rna", "coughs", "niosh", "two-stage", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>486368, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influenza_viral_RNA_collected_from_coughs_using_the_NIOSH_two_stage_aerosol_sampler_/486368", "title"=>"Influenza viral RNA collected from coughs using the NIOSH two-stage aerosol sampler.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 01:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816229"], "description"=>"<p>Nasopharyngeal swabs and cough aerosol samples from 30 subjects were cultured for viable influenza virus. This table shows the number of samples found to be influenza-positive by qPCR and VPA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plaque", "assay", "cough-generated"], "article_id"=>486583, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viral_plaque_assay_results_for_cough_generated_aerosols_/486583", "title"=>"Viral plaque assay results for cough-generated aerosols.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 01:49:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816068"], "description"=>"<p>Before each test, the piston spirometer was purged and partially filled with 5 liters of clean dry air. When the patient coughed into the system mouthpiece, the cough flowed through an ultrasonic spirometer which measured the cough volume and flow rate. The cough then flowed through a valve and into the piston spirometer, displacing the piston to the right. When the subject finished coughing, the valve was closed and the aerosol sampler was turned on. The cough aerosol was pulled out of the spirometer and collected by the aerosol sampler. As the aerosol sampler drew air, the piston moved to the left until no air remained in the spirometer.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aerosol"], "article_id"=>486431, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cough_aerosol_particle_collection_system_/486431", "title"=>"Cough aerosol particle collection system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 01:47:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816175"], "description"=>"<p>Average values are given, except for days of symptoms, for which the median is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "public health and epidemiology", "respiratory medicine"], "article_id"=>486539, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_presentation_of_study_participants_/486539", "title"=>"Clinical presentation of study participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 01:48:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/407057"], "description"=>"<div><p>Influenza is thought to be communicated from person to person by multiple pathways. However, the relative importance of different routes of influenza transmission is unclear. To better understand the potential for the airborne spread of influenza, we measured the amount and size of aerosol particles containing influenza virus that were produced by coughing. Subjects were recruited from patients presenting at a student health clinic with influenza-like symptoms. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the volunteers and they were asked to cough three times into a spirometer. After each cough, the cough-generated aerosol was collected using a NIOSH two-stage bioaerosol cyclone sampler or an SKC BioSampler. The amount of influenza viral RNA contained in the samplers was analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qPCR) targeting the matrix gene M1. For half of the subjects, viral plaque assays were performed on the nasopharyngeal swabs and cough aerosol samples to determine if viable virus was present. Fifty-eight subjects were tested, of whom 47 were positive for influenza virus by qPCR. Influenza viral RNA was detected in coughs from 38 of these subjects (81%). Thirty-five percent of the influenza RNA was contained in particles >4 µm in aerodynamic diameter, while 23% was in particles 1 to 4 µm and 42% in particles <1 µm. Viable influenza virus was detected in the cough aerosols from 2 of 21 subjects with influenza. These results show that coughing by influenza patients emits aerosol particles containing influenza virus and that much of the viral RNA is contained within particles in the respirable size range. The results support the idea that the airborne route may be a pathway for influenza transmission, especially in the immediate vicinity of an influenza patient. Further research is needed on the viability of airborne influenza viruses and the risk of transmission.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measurements", "airborne", "influenza", "aerosol", "particles", "coughs"], "article_id"=>140413, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Measurements_of_Airborne_Influenza_Virus_in_Aerosol_Particles_from_Human_Coughs/140413", "title"=>"Measurements of Airborne Influenza Virus in Aerosol Particles from Human Coughs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 00:06:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/816141"], "description"=>"<p>The NIOSH two-stage sampler was used to collect cough aerosols from 48 subjects, 38 of whom were later confirmed to have influenza. Influenza viral RNA was detected in at least one sampler stage for 32 of the viral positive subjects (84%). This table shows the viral copy number and distribution of particle sizes for the 32 subjects for whom influenza viral RNA was detected in their cough-generated aerosol particles. As illustrated by the large standard deviations (SD), the amount of influenza viral RNA in the cough aerosols varied tremendously between patients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viral", "rna", "niosh", "two-stage", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>486494, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influenza_viral_RNA_detected_in_the_NIOSH_two_stage_aerosol_sampler_/486494", "title"=>"Influenza viral RNA detected in the NIOSH two-stage aerosol sampler.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 01:48:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/815834"], "description"=>"<p>The numbers in parentheses are the number of aerosol samples collected using SKC BioSamplers and NIOSH aerosol samplers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patients"], "article_id"=>486191, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Medicine", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William G. Lindsley", "Francoise M. Blachere", "Robert E. Thewlis", "Abhishek Vishnu", "Kristina A. Davis", "Gang Cao", "Jan E. Palmer", "Karen E. Clark", "Melanie A. Fisher", "Rashida Khakoo", "Donald H. Beezhold"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015100.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_chart_showing_patients_and_tests_performed_/486191", "title"=>"Flow chart showing patients and tests performed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-30 01:43:11"}

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