Facilitate Insight by Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation
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{"title"=>"Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Richard P.", "last_name"=>"Chi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36337578700"}, {"first_name"=>"Allan W.", "last_name"=>"Snyder", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202060582"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"361219305", "sgr"=>"79551629073", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21311746", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79551629073", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0016655", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"89948bb6-b480-3f19-8500-0b07713fa747", "abstract"=>"Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL). Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control), whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011) with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability) of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability) of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/facilitate-insight-noninvasive-brain-stimulation", "reader_count"=>302, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Researcher"=>72, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>43, "Other"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>14, "Researcher"=>72, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>43, "Other"=>17, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>19, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Philosophy"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>12, "Engineering"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>40, "Neuroscience"=>24, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>128, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>40}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>128}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>19}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>9}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>20, "Japan"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Switzerland"=>2, "Russia"=>2, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>5, "Austria"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>3, "Belgium"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "Denmark"=>2, "Dominican Republic"=>1, "Italy"=>5, "Israel"=>2, "Australia"=>3, "Chile"=>3, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>22}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/800947"], "description"=>"<p>Type 1 insight problems were used in the mental set phase. Type 2 and Type 3 problems were used in the testing phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["problems"], "article_id"=>471320, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Richard P. Chi", "Allan W. Snyder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016655.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_illustration_of_the_insight_problems_used_/471320", "title"=>"An illustration of the insight problems used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:47:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801001"], "description"=>"<p>Condition of stimulation has a significant effect on both the time to event (solving the Type 2 insight problem) curves (p = 0.010, logrank test) and the percentage of subjects who solved the insight problem by the end of 6 minutes (p = 0.024, 2 tail fisher's exact test). While participants in all stimulation groups had difficulties in the first minute, after 150 seconds, only those in the L− R+ group continued to solve the insight problem over time. By the end of 360 seconds, 60% of those in the L− R+ stimulation group could solve the problem whereas only 20% of those in the sham stimulation group could do so (p = 0.022, two tail fisher's exact test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["provides", "solving", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>471376, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Richard P. Chi", "Allan W. Snyder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016655.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_figure_provides_a_comparison_of_problem_solving_performance_Type_2_insight_problem_across_stimulation_groups_/471376", "title"=>"The figure provides a comparison of problem solving performance (Type 2 insight problem) across stimulation groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:48:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801096"], "description"=>"<p>Values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Participants across the three stimulation groups did not differ in terms of age (p = 0.19, ANOVA), time required in completing the mental set phase (p = 0.76, ANOVA) or experience in a quantitative field (p = 0.85, 2 tailed Fisher's exact test). It turned out that gender is not evenly distributed across the stimulation groups, with a few more females in the sham stimulation group. Nevertheless, it is clear from the data that gender is not a predictor of success in problem solving for either the Type 2 (p = 1, 2-tailed Fisher's exact test) or Type 3 (p = 0.58, 2-tailed Fisher's exact test) insight problem (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0016655#pone-0016655-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>471470, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Richard P. Chi", "Allan W. Snyder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016655.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_characteristics_across_the_three_stimulation_groups_/471470", "title"=>"Demographic characteristics across the three stimulation groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:48:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801056"], "description"=>"<p>We a priori did not intend to use the Type 3 insight problem to test our main hypothesis that those in the L− R+ group would perform better than those in the sham stimulation group. This is because those with brain lesion paradoxically perform better only for Type 2 problems, but not for Type 3 problems (Reveberi et al., 2007). Nevertheless, the result for the Type 3 problem is consistent with our hypothesis and also consistent with results for the Type 2 problem. Note that while the comparisons between L+ R− and sham (p = 0.15, logrank test) and between L+ R− and L− R+ (p = 0.26, logrank test) are not significant (possibly due to the lack of power), it is clear that those in the L− R+ group had a significant advantage over those in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.010, logrank test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["provides", "solving", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>471427, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Richard P. Chi", "Allan W. Snyder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016655.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_figure_provides_a_comparison_of_problem_solving_performance_Type_3_insight_problem_across_stimulation_groups_/471427", "title"=>"The figure provides a comparison of problem solving performance (Type 3 insight problem) across stimulation groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:48:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801121"], "description"=>"<p>Values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Neither age (p = 0.255, 2 tailed independent t test), gender (p = 1, 2-tailed Fisher's exact test), time required in completing the mental set phase (p = 0.36, 2 tailed independent t test), or experience in a quantitative field (p = 0.36, 2-tailed Fisher's exact test) is a predictor of success in solving the Type 2 problem. In other words, there is no evidence that those in the L− R+ group had superior performance because of confounding baseline attributes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "solving"], "article_id"=>471496, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Richard P. Chi", "Allan W. Snyder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016655.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_characteristics_of_those_who_were_successful_in_solving_the_Type_2_problem_vs_those_who_failed_/471496", "title"=>"Demographic characteristics of those who were successful in solving the Type 2 problem vs those who failed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:48:57"}

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Relative Metric

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