Glacial History of the North Atlantic Marine Snail, Littorina saxatilis, Inferred from Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages
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{"title"=>"Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marina", "last_name"=>"Panova", "scopus_author_id"=>"23101135900"}, {"first_name"=>"April M H", "last_name"=>"Blakeslee", "scopus_author_id"=>"17345103500"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Whitman", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"8951174500"}, {"first_name"=>"Tuuli", "last_name"=>"Mäkinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"23100436900"}, {"first_name"=>"Gregory M.", "last_name"=>"Ruiz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101628728"}, {"first_name"=>"Kerstin", "last_name"=>"Johannesson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55794130600"}, {"first_name"=>"Carl", "last_name"=>"André", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202041157"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"361433593", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0017511", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952614772", "pmid"=>"21412417", "sgr"=>"79952614772"}, "id"=>"d1e30ffa-6031-3efb-8bf5-e4c78c5de67d", "abstract"=>"The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/glacial-history-north-atlantic-marine-snail-littorina-saxatilis-inferred-distribution-mitochondrial-5", "reader_count"=>67, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56, "Decision Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Iceland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791914"], "description"=>"<p>Clades and haplotypes correspond to those in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone-0017511-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>. The tree was calibrated using divergence estimates between <i>L. saxatilis</i> and two other species (<i>L. fabalis</i> and <i>L. arcana</i>). Mean estimates and 95% highest posterior density interval (HPD) for time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of each clade are given in ka (thousands of years).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "mitochondrial", "lineages", "bayesian", "skyline", "coalescent"], "article_id"=>462274, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Divergence_time_estimates_for_mitochondrial_cytochrome_b_lineages_in_Littorina_saxatilis_using_the_Bayesian_Skyline_coalescent_model_in_BEAST_/462274", "title"=>"Divergence time estimates for mitochondrial cytochrome-<i>b</i> lineages in <i>Littorina saxatilis</i> using the Bayesian Skyline coalescent model in BEAST.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:37:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/396106", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/396115", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/396124", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/396136", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/396140", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/396148"], "description"=>"<div><p>The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, <em>Littorina saxatilis</em> (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome <em>b</em> gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, <em>L. saxatilis</em> has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of <em>L. saxatilis</em> adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glacial", "atlantic", "inferred", "mitochondrial", "dna", "lineages"], "article_id"=>138245, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>35, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Glacial_History_of_the_North_Atlantic_Marine_Snail_Littorina_saxatilis_Inferred_from_Distribution_of_Mitochondrial_DNA_Lineages/138245", "title"=>"Glacial History of the North Atlantic Marine Snail, <em>Littorina saxatilis</em>, Inferred from Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 02:17:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791947"], "description"=>"<p>For each statistic, <i>P</i>-values obtained by 1000 permutations, are given within parentheses. Values supporting population expansion (i.e. significant negative values of Tajima's D and Fu's statistics and non-significant sum of square deviations between observed and expected mismatch distributions (SSD) and raggedness index <i>r</i>) are highlighted in bold. For groups with support for population expansion, time of expansion T (in thousands years, ka) was calculated from expansion parameter τ, mutation rate of 2 and 4% per site per Ma and generation time 0.5–1 years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neutrality", "groups", "i-vii"], "article_id"=>462314, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mismatch_analysis_and_neutrality_tests_for_population_groups_I_VII_of_Littorina_saxatilis_identified_by_SAMOVA_/462314", "title"=>"Mismatch analysis and neutrality tests for population groups I-VII of <i>Littorina saxatilis</i>, identified by SAMOVA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791983"], "description"=>"<p>In AMOVA, populations were divided into two groups: NWA (Northwest Atlantic) and NEA (Northeast Atlantic mainland) combined with ISL (North Atlantic Islands) or into three groups: NWA, NEA and ISL. In SAMOVA, results are shown for a partitioning that maximized the percentage of total variance explained by variation among groups (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone-0017511-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["molecular", "variance", "spatial"], "article_id"=>462349, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_molecular_variance_AMOVA_and_spatial_analysis_of_molecular_variance_SAMOVA_for_cytochrome_b_variation_in_Littorina_saxatilis_/462349", "title"=>"Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) for cytochrome-<i>b</i> variation in <i>Littorina saxatilis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:39:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791796"], "description"=>"<p>SAMOVA partitioning of <i>Littorina saxatilis</i> populations into seven groups (I–VII) and frequencies of the cytochrome <i>b</i> haplotype clades in the sampled populations (clade colours are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone-0017511-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>462160, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Large_scale_population_structure_in_Littorina_saxatilis_/462160", "title"=>"Large scale population structure in <i>Littorina saxatilis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791643"], "description"=>"<p><i>Littorina fabalis</i> is included as the outgroup for the tree. Numbers above the nodes refer to posterior probabilities of the clades (probabilities <0.5 are not shown). Clades with posterior probabilities >0.7 (A–E, A1, A2) are indicated by different colours (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone-0017511-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a> for their frequencies in different populations demonstrated as pie charts). Mean TMRCAs for these clades in ka are given below the nodes, together with the two utilized calibration points: fossils (*) and allozyme divergence (**). Sequence accession numbers are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone.0017511.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "mitochondrial", "haplotypes", "coalescence", "times"], "article_id"=>462005, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bayesian_phylogenetic_tree_of_Littorina_saxatilis_mitochondrial_cytochrome_b_haplotypes_with_coalescence_times_estimated_in_BEAST_/462005", "title"=>"Bayesian phylogenetic tree of <i>Littorina saxatilis</i> mitochondrial cytochrome-<i>b</i> haplotypes with coalescence times estimated in BEAST.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:33:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791863"], "description"=>"<p>θ is effective population size (θ = 4Nμ) for first (θ<sub>1</sub>) and second (θ<sub>2</sub>) populations in the model and their ancestral population (θ<sub>A</sub>); migration rates m<sub>1→2</sub>/μ and m<sub>2→1</sub>/μ are from first to second and second to first population in the model, respectively; divergence time is converted to thousands years (ka) using mutation rates of 2 and 4% per Ma. Values in parentheses represent 90% HPD confidence intervals for each parameter (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone.0017511.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a> for probability analysis of significant differences between parameters).</p><p>Groups of populations are as following (see map in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone-0017511-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>):</p><p>NEA – Northeast Atlantic; ISL - Northeast Atlantic islands; NWA – Northwest Atlantic; NEA(S) includes NEA sites grouped in SAMOVA with North Atlantic islands (Ireland-1, Norway, Barents Sea, White Sea, Sweden-2, Germany, Belgium and France); NWA(S) includes NWA populations grouped in SAMOVA with North Atlantic islands (Cape Breton in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland); NEA(MAIN) includes mainland sites in Europe; BI includes all British Isles sites; CAN includes all Maritime Canada sites; USSOUTH includes southern US sites below 43°N; EUROPE(S) includes European sites (British Isles and Sweden) that formed a group with Venice in SAMOVA analyses; SPAIN is the site in Galicia; VENICE is the Venetian lagoon site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "divergence", "groups"], "article_id"=>462231, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_IMa_estimates_of_effective_population_sizes_migration_and_divergence_time_between_regional_groups_of_Littorina_saxatilis_/462231", "title"=>"IMa estimates of effective population sizes, migration, and divergence time between regional groups of <i>Littorina saxatilis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:37:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791515"], "description"=>"<p>Those haplotypes restricted to NWA are coloured white; those haplotypes restricted to NEA are coloured gray; and those haplotypes shared across the North Atlantic are displayed as pie-diagrams showing their frequencies in NWA and NEA. Bold circles indicate haplotypes found in more than one locality; the rest are private and found in only one sample. Large bubbles depict haplotypes with frequencies of 10 or more, and small bubbles depict haplotypes with frequencies below 10. Monophyletic clades from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis are indicated by rounded rectangles; haplotypes outside these rectangles all belong to clade A.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["haplotype"], "article_id"=>461883, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cytochrome_b_haplotype_network_in_L_saxatilis_across_the_North_Atlantic_/461883", "title"=>"Cytochrome-<i>b</i> haplotype network in <i>L. saxatilis</i> across the North Atlantic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:31:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/791395"], "description"=>"<p>Dataset includes 16 sites in the Northwest Atlantic (“NWA”; yellow circles), 3 sites from North Atlantic islands (“ISL”, blue circles), and 15 sites from Northeast Atlantic (“NEA”; black circles). Dashed lines show the northern and southern ranges of the species' distributions in NWA and the southern range of the distribution in NEA (the northern range in NEA is Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya which is beyond the scope of our map); white stars denote additional isolated populations of the species. Data for the species' North Atlantic range is derived from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511#pone.0017511-Reid1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampled", "populations"], "article_id"=>461757, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Marina Panova", "April M. H. Blakeslee", "A. Whitman Miller", "Tuuli Mäkinen", "Gregory M. Ruiz", "Kerstin Johannesson", "Carl André"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017511.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_sampled_populations_of_L_saxatilis_across_the_North_Atlantic_/461757", "title"=>"Map of sampled populations of <i>L. saxatilis</i> across the North Atlantic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-03-11 00:29:17"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"27", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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