The Lesser Known Challenge of Climate Change: Thermal Variance and Sex-Reversal in Vertebrates with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination
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{"title"=>"The lesser known challenge of climate change: Thermal variance and sex-reversal in vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jennifer L.", "last_name"=>"Neuwald", "scopus_author_id"=>"24177082800"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicole", "last_name"=>"Valenzuela", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701409094"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952914225", "pui"=>"361490452", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0018117", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79952914225", "pmid"=>"21448294"}, "id"=>"97243654-ad85-39e3-ba78-e55d1e50991d", "abstract"=>"Climate change is expected to disrupt biological systems. Particularly susceptible are species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as in many reptiles. While the potentially devastating effect of rising mean temperatures on sex ratios in TSD species is appreciated, the consequences of increased thermal variance predicted to accompany climate change remain obscure. Surprisingly, no study has tested if the effect of thermal variance around high-temperatures (which are particularly relevant given climate change predictions) has the same or opposite effects as around lower temperatures. Here we show that sex ratios of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) were reversed as fluctuations increased around low and high unisexual mean-temperatures. Unexpectedly, the developmental and sexual responses around female-producing temperatures were decoupled in a more complex manner than around male-producing values. Our novel observations are not fully explained by existing ecological models of development and sex determination, and provide strong evidence that thermal fluctuations are critical for shaping the biological outcomes of climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lesser-known-challenge-climate-change-thermal-variance-sexreversal-vertebrates-temperaturedependent", "reader_count"=>99, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>69, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>69}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Saudi Arabia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/788994"], "description"=>"<p>Two-day trace of the thermal regimes used in this study to incubate <i>Chrysemys picta</i> eggs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thermal", "regimes", "incubate"], "article_id"=>459363, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer L. Neuwald", "Nicole Valenzuela"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_day_trace_of_the_thermal_regimes_used_in_this_study_to_incubate_Chrysemys_picta_eggs_/459363", "title"=>"Two-day trace of the thermal regimes used in this study to incubate <i>Chrysemys picta</i> eggs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:41:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/789117"], "description"=>"<p>Observed males and observed females (m:f) per treatment and year are indicated above columns. Asterisks indicate statistically significant deviations from sex ratios expected by the mean temperature. Arrows indicate direction of change from expectation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thermal", "variance", "ratios"], "article_id"=>459492, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer L. Neuwald", "Nicole Valenzuela"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reversing_effect_of_increasing_thermal_variance_on_sex_ratios_of_Chrysemys_picta_turtles_/459492", "title"=>"Reversing effect of increasing thermal variance on sex ratios of <i>Chrysemys picta</i> turtles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:42:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/789586"], "description"=>"<p>Tukey-Kramer HSD significant differences in incubation time are indicated by the lettered superscripts.</p><p>‡ =  2008 values of mortality and incubation time are higher than in 2009 due to logistical problems with data-recording and thus are presented only to illustrate the relative effect of thermal treatments which is consistent across years, but not their absolute magnitude.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "physiology", "ecology", "developmental biology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>459955, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer L. Neuwald", "Nicole Valenzuela"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_developmental_rate_and_mortality_of_Chrysemys_picta_in_this_study_/459955", "title"=>"Observed developmental rate and mortality of <i>Chrysemys picta</i> in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:44:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/789233"], "description"=>"<p>Solid symbols denote the constant temperature predicted by the non-linear model to exhibit a developmental rate equal to that observed at each fluctuating experiment conducted in this study (nl-CTE, see text for full description). Open symbols denote the developmental rate predicted for the minimum and maximum temperatures used in each fluctuating experiment. Symbols of the same shape and color correspond to a single fluctuating experiment as described in the color legends. Exp  =  sex ratio expected by the nl-CTE values. Obs  =  observed sex ratio. Asterisks denote deviations from expectation. OTR  =  Optimal Thermal Range (gray area), LTL  =  Low Thermal Limit, HTL  =  High Thermal Limit <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117#pone.0018117-Les1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["embryos"], "article_id"=>459609, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer L. Neuwald", "Nicole Valenzuela"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Developmental_rate_of_Chrysemys_picta_embryos_as_a_function_of_temperature_/459609", "title"=>"Developmental rate of <i>Chrysemys picta</i> embryos as a function of temperature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:42:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/789524"], "description"=>"<p>CTE and CTU units were calculated using 14°C as the developmental zero <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117#pone.0018117-Les2\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>. VDM temperature was calculated as 29°C and 31°C, respectively, for the 26±3 and 26±5°C treatments, and as 26°C for the 31±5°C treatment, since the minimum temperature in the former two treatments retards development compared to the maximum values while the opposite is true for the 31±5°C treatment. VDM temperature was calculated as ≥28°C for the 31±3°C treatment since embryos were exposed to temperatures between 28 and 34°C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incubation", "parameters", "calculated", "non-linear", "linear", "models", "et", "ctu"], "article_id"=>459886, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer L. Neuwald", "Nicole Valenzuela"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incubation_experimental_design_used_in_this_study_of_Chrysemys_picta_and_incubation_parameters_calculated_from_a_non_linear_model_of_development_by_temperature_23_30_linear_models_CTE_Georges_et_al_1994_and_CTU_Valenzuela_2001_models_and_a_variable_degre/459886", "title"=>"Incubation experimental design used in this study of <i>Chrysemys picta</i>, and incubation parameters calculated from a non-linear model of development by temperature [23], [30], linear models [CTE (Georges et al. 1994) and CTU (Valenzuela 2001) models], and a variable degree model [25] of sex determination as described in the text.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/789553"], "description"=>"<p>* =  observed sex ratios unexplained by the mean temperature,</p><p>§ =  observed sex ratios unexplained by the linear and the VDM models,</p><p>† =  observed sex ratios unexplained by the non-linear model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ratios", "predictions", "non-linear", "linear", "models", "et", "ctu"], "article_id"=>459919, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jennifer L. Neuwald", "Nicole Valenzuela"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018117.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_sex_ratios_of_Chrysemys_picta_and_predictions_from_a_non_linear_model_of_development_by_temperature_23_30_linear_models_CTE_Georges_et_al_1994_and_CTU_Valenzuela_2001_models_and_a_variable_degree_model_25_of_sex_determination_as_described_in_the/459919", "title"=>"Observed sex ratios of <i>Chrysemys picta</i>, and predictions from a non-linear model of development by temperature [23], [30], linear models [CTE (Georges et al. 1994) and CTU (Valenzuela 2001) models], and a variable degree model [25] of sex determination as described in the text.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:44:23"}

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Relative Metric

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