Noise Pollution Filters Bird Communities Based on Vocal Frequency
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{"title"=>"Noise pollution filters bird communities based on vocal frequency", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Clinton D.", "last_name"=>"Francis", "scopus_author_id"=>"27867753600"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine P.", "last_name"=>"Ortega", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005784636"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Cruz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202516602"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80655128566", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0027052", "pui"=>"362888177", "sgr"=>"80655128566", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"22096517"}, "id"=>"85cb41a0-1c57-3283-afa1-9cd70f7855ee", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are immediately relevant to the global problem of increases in noise by providing critical insight as to which species traits influence tolerance of these novel acoustics.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/noise-pollution-filters-bird-communities-based-vocal-frequency", "reader_count"=>209, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>47, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>45, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>42, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>47, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>45, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>139, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>39, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>39}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>139}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>3, "Netherlands"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/713798"], "description"=>"<p>Spectrograms are on the outside panels and power spectra are located on the center panels. Darker shades in spectrograms indicate more acoustic energy located at those frequencies, which is reflected by higher amplitude values in the power spectra. On noisy treatment sites, acoustic energy from compressors increases at lower frequencies and represents a greater masking potential for species with low-frequency vocalizations. This masking potential is absent on quiet control sites. Horizontal lines denote approximate minimum and maximum vocal frequencies of birds considered in this study (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Audio S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a> for sample recordings of background noise on treatment and control sites).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["noisy"], "article_id"=>384169, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_background_noise_on_a_noisy_treatment_A_and_quiet_control_site_B_/384169", "title"=>"Examples of background noise on a noisy treatment (A) and quiet control site (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:09:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/713742"], "description"=>"<p>If the degree to which species can successfully dispatch and receive acoustic signals influences their distributions in environments characterized by anthropogenic noise, species that have high-frequency vocalizations or long signal durations may have a neutral response to noise, but species that vocalize at low frequencies or with short signals may avoid noisy areas. Similarly, if urban birds have signals predisposed to noisy urban areas, urban-tolerant species should have neutral to marginally negative responses to noise compared to strong negative responses by non-urban species, even in noisy non-urban areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["influences", "urban-tolerance", "classifications", "species-specific", "responses"], "article_id"=>384098, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_influences_of_vocal_features_and_urban_tolerance_classifications_on_species_specific_responses_to_noise_/384098", "title"=>"Predicted influences of vocal features and urban-tolerance classifications on species-specific responses to noise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:08:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714106"], "description"=>"<p>A blank value indicates that the variables did not load strongly on that principal component axis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["loadings", "components", "acoustic", "measures", "taken"], "article_id"=>384464, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factor_loadings_on_two_principal_components_for_acoustic_measures_taken_from_bird_vocalizations_/384464", "title"=>"Factor loadings on two principal components for acoustic measures taken from bird vocalizations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:14:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/713871"], "description"=>"<p>PC<sub>Freq</sub> (negatively associated with four vocalization frequency features) had a strong effect on species' (<b>A</b>) nesting and (<b>B</b>) abundance responses to noise (both panels, <i>n</i> = 30). Y-axis values reflect the natural log of the ratios reflecting response to noise: (<b>A</b>) mean number of nests per treatment vs. control site and (<b>B</b>) mean number of individuals per survey location on treatment vs. control sites. Values above zero (dashed horizontal lines) indicate greater abundance on treatment sites (positive response to noise), and values below zero indicate greater abundance on control sites (negative response to noise). Distance from zero reflects the relative strength of the response. (<b>C</b>) Sample spectrograms of species vocalizations (black) and anthropogenic noise with decreasing acoustic energy at higher frequencies (grey; included for display only). For all panels, symbols other than solid circles are as follows: asterisk = black-chinned hummingbird, solid square = bushtit, open diamond = chipping sparrow, crossed diamond = house finch, open circle = black-headed grosbeak, open triangle = western tanager, open square = mourning dove (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Audio S3</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S5</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S6</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s007\" target=\"_blank\">S7</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S8</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052#pone.0027052.s009\" target=\"_blank\">S9</a> for samples of each species).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>384235, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_vocal_frequency_PC_Freq_on_response_to_noise_/384235", "title"=>"Influence of vocal frequency (PC<sub>Freq</sub>) on response to noise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:10:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714050"], "description"=>"<p>PC<sub>Freq</sub> was negatively associated with signal frequency, PC<sub>Dur</sub> was negatively associated with signal duration, and urban reflects species classification as urban-tolerant (breeding in urban areas) or non-urban. All candidate models are shown, including the null (intercept only model). <i>K</i> represents the number of parameters in the model, AIC<i>c</i> values are Akaike's information criteria for small sample size and ΛAIC<i><sub>c</sub></i> is the difference in AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i> values from the top-ranking model. Models with ΛAIC<i><sub>c</sub></i><4 are considered to have support and used to calculate Akaike weights (<i>w<sub>i</sub></i>) for model-averaging coefficient estimates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dataset", "examining", "classification", "explaining", "responses"], "article_id"=>384409, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_selection_results_for_full_dataset_examining_the_influence_of_vocal_features_and_urban_classification_in_explaining_responses_to_noise_/384409", "title"=>"Model-selection results for full dataset examining the influence of vocal features and urban classification in explaining responses to noise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:13:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/714075"], "description"=>"<p>GLM model-averaged coefficient estimates, plus unconditional standard errors (SE), and lower and upper 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented for all explanatory variables in supported models (ΛAIC<i><sub>c</sub></i><4).</p>a<p>Effects with confidence intervals that do not overlap zero, indicating a strong effect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["explanatory", "variables", "responses"], "article_id"=>384440, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_for_the_influence_of_explanatory_variables_on_responses_to_noise_/384440", "title"=>"Estimates for the influence of explanatory variables on responses to noise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:14:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/713999"], "description"=>"<p>Because frequency features are negatively associated with PC<sub>Freq</sub>, the positive relationship depicted reflects a negative relationship between body mass and vocal frequency.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology", "physics"], "article_id"=>384357, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_body_mass_and_PC_Freq_/384357", "title"=>"Relationship between body mass and PC<sub>Freq</sub>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 01:12:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362017", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362035", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362061", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362075", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362092", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362104", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362117", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362131", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/362145"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are immediately relevant to the global problem of increases in noise by providing critical insight as to which species traits influence tolerance of these novel acoustics.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["filters", "communities", "based"], "article_id"=>131571, "categories"=>["Physics", "Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clinton D. Francis", "Catherine P. Ortega", "Alexander Cruz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027052.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Noise_Pollution_Filters_Bird_Communities_Based_on_Vocal_Frequency/131571", "title"=>"Noise Pollution Filters Bird Communities Based on Vocal Frequency", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-11-09 00:26:11"}

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Relative Metric

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