Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates
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{"title"=>"Diseases and causes of death in European bats: Dynamics in disease susceptibility and infection rates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kristin", "last_name"=>"Mühldorfer", "scopus_author_id"=>"35300050400"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephanie", "last_name"=>"Speck", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005994167"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Kurth", "scopus_author_id"=>"56459779600"}, {"first_name"=>"René", "last_name"=>"Lesnik", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193841986"}, {"first_name"=>"Conrad", "last_name"=>"Freuling", "scopus_author_id"=>"24068493200"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Müller", "scopus_author_id"=>"55369415400"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephanie", "last_name"=>"Kramer-Schadt", "scopus_author_id"=>"55914677700"}, {"first_name"=>"Gudrun", "last_name"=>"Wibbelt", "scopus_author_id"=>"23468332600"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364010425", "sgr"=>"84555203660", "pmid"=>"22216354", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84555203660", "isbn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029773", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"b92bcd2a-4111-35b1-9986-5647b3aaa13e", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/diseases-causes-death-european-bats-dynamics-disease-susceptibility-infection-rates", "reader_count"=>91, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698611"], "description"=>"<p>*Histo-pathological findings described in more details elsewhere <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773#pone.0029773-Mhldorfer3\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bats"], "article_id"=>369005, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacteria_associated_with_disease_in_bats_from_Germany_/369005", "title"=>"Bacteria associated with disease in bats from Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:30:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354760"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family <em>Vespertilionidae</em>) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diseases", "causes", "european", "susceptibility", "rates"], "article_id"=>130107, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Diseases_and_Causes_of_Death_in_European_Bats_Dynamics_in_Disease_Susceptibility_and_Infection_Rates/130107", "title"=>"Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 00:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698645"], "description"=>"<p>BatGHV, Bat gammaherpesvirus.</p><p>BatBHV, Bat betaherpesvirus.</p>a<p>Tested bats from a sample set containing 180 animals.</p>b<p>Tested bats from a sample set containing 210 animals.</p>c<p>Co-infection of different herpesviruses recognized.</p><p>n.d., not determined due to insufficient sample numbers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herpesvirus", "bats"], "article_id"=>369036, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bat_herpesvirus_infection_in_bats_from_Germany_/369036", "title"=>"Bat herpesvirus infection in bats from Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:30:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698123"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Bat species distribution among the study sample (n = 486). (B) Male-to-female ratio (bat species >10 individuals). Footnotes: 1) Chi-square test, χ<sup>2</sup> = 11.1, df = 1, p = 0.0009, 2) χ<sup>2</sup> = 8.8, df = 1, p = 0.003, 3) χ<sup>2</sup> = 4.0, df = 1, p = 0.05, 4) χ<sup>2</sup> = 3.5, df = 1, p = 0.06. Abbreviations: Ppip, <i>Pipistrellus pipistrellus</i>; Pnath, <i>Pipistrellus nathusii</i>; Nnoc, <i>Nyctalus noctula</i>; Mmyst, <i>Myotis mystacinus</i>; Mdaub, <i>Myotis daubentonii</i>; Mnatt, <i>Myotis nattereri</i>; Eser, <i>Eptesicus serotinus</i>; Enils, <i>Eptesicus nilssonii</i>; Paur, <i>Plecotus auritus</i>; Vmur, <i>Vespertilio murinus</i>. (C) Age-sex distribution among the study sample (n = 486).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bats"], "article_id"=>368520, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_on_bats_from_Germany_/368520", "title"=>"Details on bats from Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:22:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698756"], "description"=>"a<p>Details on pathological findings described elsewhere <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773#pone.0029773-Mhldorfer3\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>.</p>b<p>Adenovirus (bat AdV-2) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773#pone.0029773-Sonntag1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> and European bat lyssavirus (EBLV-1) infection.</p>c<p>Severe intestinal trematode infection, disseminated nematode infection, renal or intestinal coccidiosis <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773#pone.0029773-Mhldorfer3\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["findings", "viral", "parasitic", "infections", "specified", "causes"], "article_id"=>369143, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathological_findings_and_bacterial_viral_and_parasitic_infections_specified_for_the_general_causes_of_mortality_trauma_and_disease_/369143", "title"=>"Pathological findings and bacterial, viral and parasitic infections specified for the general causes of mortality, trauma and disease.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:32:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698564"], "description"=>"<p>GLMM, generalized linear mixed models with bat species included as random effect.</p><p>GLM, generalized linear models for datasets with bat species >10 individuals.</p><p>AIC, Akaike's information criterion.</p><p>*ΔAIC of the final model relative to a random intercept model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variables", "corresponding", "disease-", "trauma-related", "presence-absence", "ecto-", "endoparasitic"], "article_id"=>368944, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Result_of_the_final_model_variables_corresponding_to_4_different_analyses_A_disease_vs_trauma_related_mortality_and_presence_absence_of_B_bacterial_C_ecto_and_D_endoparasitic_infection_/368944", "title"=>"Result of the final model variables corresponding to 4 different analyses: (A) disease- vs. trauma-related mortality, and presence-absence of (B) bacterial, (C) ecto- and (D) endoparasitic infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:29:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698716"], "description"=>"<p>n.d., not determined.</p>a<p>A randomly selected individual of 3 different groups of adult <i>Nyctalus noctula</i>.</p>b<p>Adenovirus (bat AdV-2) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773#pone.0029773-Sonntag1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> and European bat lyssavirus (EBLV-1) infection.</p>c<p>Due to severe tick infestation.</p>d<p>A randomly selected individual of a group of juvenile <i>Pipistrellus pipistrellus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bats"], "article_id"=>369103, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Causes_of_mortality_of_bats_from_Germany_/369103", "title"=>"Causes of mortality of bats from Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:31:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698682"], "description"=>"<p>GLMM, generalized linear mixed models with bat species included as random effect.</p><p>GLM, generalized linear models for datasets with bat species >10 individuals.</p><p>A–D: refers to the models analyzed on the different data sets (see chapter ‘Statistical analyses’).</p>a<p>To avoid overrepresentation of bat samples that were collected at the same time and location, a randomly selected individual of each group was included in the final dataset.</p>b<p>For detection of lyssavirus antigen, brain tissue of all 486 bats was tested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sets"], "article_id"=>369072, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_the_data_sets_used_for_different_analyses_/369072", "title"=>"Description of the data sets used for different analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:31:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698425"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Ecto- and (B) endoparasite prevalence in different European vespertilionid bat species. Error bars represent 95% binomial confidence intervals. Abbreviations: Nnoc, <i>Nyctalus noctula</i>; Mdaub, <i>Myotis daubentonii</i>; Vmur, <i>Vespertilio murinus</i>; Enils, <i>Eptesicus nilssonii</i>; Ppip, <i>Pipistrellus pipistrellus</i>; Eser, <i>Eptesicus serotinus</i>; Paur, <i>Plecotus auritus</i>; Pnath, <i>Pipistrellus nathusii</i>; Mnatt, <i>Myotis nattereri</i>; Mmyst, <i>Myotis mystacinus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parasite"], "article_id"=>368823, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_specific_parasite_infection_rates_/368823", "title"=>"Species-specific parasite infection rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:27:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/698272"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Age-specific prevalence. (B) Seasonal distribution of trauma- and disease-related mortality cases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "seasonal", "variations", "causes"], "article_id"=>368664, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Kristin Mühldorfer", "Stephanie Speck", "Andreas Kurth", "René Lesnik", "Conrad Freuling", "Thomas Müller", "Stephanie Kramer-Schadt", "Gudrun Wibbelt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029773.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_dependent_differences_and_seasonal_variations_among_the_general_causes_of_mortality_disease_and_trauma_/368664", "title"=>"Age-dependent differences and seasonal variations among the general causes of mortality, disease and trauma.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-12-28 02:24:24"}

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Relative Metric

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