Coping with Temperature at the Warm Edge – Patterns of Thermal Adaptation in the Microbial Eukaryote Paramecium caudatum
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{"title"=>"Coping with temperature at the warm edge - patterns of thermal adaptation in the microbial eukaryote paramecium caudatum", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sascha", "last_name"=>"Krenek", "scopus_author_id"=>"12789269900"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Petzoldt", "scopus_author_id"=>"55758282800"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas U.", "last_name"=>"Berendonk", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602211373"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84857960574", "pmid"=>"22427799", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0030598", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"364394758", "sgr"=>"84857960574"}, "id"=>"3c3dec8d-a2cb-3062-8215-aa105dbde477", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ectothermic organisms are thought to be severely affected by global warming since their physiological performance is directly dependent on temperature. Latitudinal and temporal variations in mean temperatures force ectotherms to adapt to these complex environmental conditions. Studies investigating current patterns of thermal adaptation among populations of different latitudes allow a prediction of the potential impact of prospective increases in environmental temperatures on their fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, temperature reaction norms were ascertained among 18 genetically defined, natural clones of the microbial eukaryote Paramecium caudatum. These different clones have been isolated from 12 freshwater habitats along a latitudinal transect in Europe and from 3 tropical habitats (Indonesia). The sensitivity to increasing temperatures was estimated through the analysis of clone specific thermal tolerances and by relating those to current and predicted temperature data of their natural habitats. All investigated European clones seem to be thermal generalists with a broad thermal tolerance and similar optimum temperatures. The weak or missing co-variation of thermal tolerance with latitude does not imply local adaptation to thermal gradients; it rather suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity among the whole European subpopulation. The tested Indonesian clones appear to be locally adapted to the less variable, tropical temperature regime and show higher tolerance limits, but lower tolerance breadths. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to the lack of local temperature adaptation within the European subpopulation, P. caudatum genotypes at the most southern edge of their geographic range seem to suffer from the predicted increase in magnitude and frequency of summer heat waves caused by climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/coping-temperature-warm-edge-patterns-thermal-adaptation-microbial-eukaryote-paramecium-caudatum", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669329"], "description"=>"<p>Relationship between environmental temperature and a physiological rate of an ectotherm expressed as a thermal performance curve (grey line). The optimum temperature (<i>T</i><sub>opt</sub>) specifies the temperature at maximum performance. The ecophysiological key characteristics critical thermal minimum (<i>CT</i><sub>min</sub>) and maximum (<i>CT</i><sub>max</sub>) delimit an organism's thermal tolerance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["thermal"], "article_id"=>339825, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_shape_of_a_thermal_performance_curve_/339825", "title"=>"General shape of a thermal performance curve.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 02:43:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669610"], "description"=>"<p>Dependency between latitude and ecophysiological key characteristics: <b>A</b>) critical thermal minimum (<i>CT</i><sub>min</sub>), <b>B</b>) thermal optimum (<i>T</i><sub>opt</sub>) and <b>C</b>) critical thermal maximum (<i>CT</i><sub>max</sub>). Symbols represent the mean ± standard error of the mean derived from the nonlinear mixed-effects model <i>nm0a</i> with residual bootstrapping. Latitudes of the European <i>P. caudatum</i> clones were corrected for altitude assuming that 100 m elevation translates into a 100 km latitudinal increment within the temperate zone. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and the respective <i>p</i>-values are as follows for the whole dataset (n = 18): <i>CT</i><sub>min</sub> (<i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = −0.795, <i>p</i><0.001), <i>T</i><sub>opt</sub> (<i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = −0.409, <i>p</i> = 0.092), <i>CT</i><sub>max</sub> (<i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = −0.596, <i>p</i><0.01); and for the European subset (n = 15): <i>CT</i><sub>min</sub> (<i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = −0.647, <i>p</i><0.01), <i>T</i><sub>opt</sub> (<i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = 0.027, <i>p</i> = 0.924), <i>CT</i><sub>max</sub> (<i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = −0.299, <i>p</i> = 0.279).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>340103, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Latitude_dependent_ecophysiology_/340103", "title"=>"Latitude-dependent ecophysiology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669925"], "description"=>"<p><i>SSx</i> = sum of products of <i>x</i> matrix elements;</p><p><i>SSy</i> = sum of products of <i>y</i> matrix elements;</p><p><i>SPxy</i> = sum of cross products of corresponding elements of the <i>x</i> and <i>y</i> matrices;</p><p><i>Rxy</i> = Mantel correlation coefficient.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecophysiological", "distances"], "article_id"=>340419, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mantel_test_for_the_correlation_between_genetic_x_matrix_and_ecophysiological_distances_y_matrix_/340419", "title"=>"Mantel test for the correlation between genetic (<i>x</i> matrix) and ecophysiological distances (<i>y</i> matrix).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:06:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669691"], "description"=>"<p>Thermal safety margins (<b>A–C</b>) and maximum warming tolerances (<b>D–F</b>) of the investigated <i>Paramecium caudatum</i> clones were calculated using habitat temperatures from global climate layers (<b>A</b>+<b>D</b>), near-by meteorological station data (<b>B</b>+<b>E</b>) and from climate change projections (<b>C</b>+<b>F</b>). Symbols represent the mean ± standard error of the mean. Latitudes of the European clones were corrected for altitude assuming a 100 km increase in latitude for a 100 m increase in altitude. Arrows indicate <i>P. caudatum</i> clones from high altitude (cf. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598#pone-0030598-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "thermal", "warming"], "article_id"=>340180, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Latitudinal_trends_in_thermal_safety_margin_and_maximum_warming_tolerance_/340180", "title"=>"Latitudinal trends in thermal safety margin and maximum warming tolerance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:03:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669525"], "description"=>"<p>Fitted thermal performance curves using the <i>Lactin-2</i> model to describe the growth rates – temperature relationship of all investigated clonal <i>P. caudatum</i> cultures. Clones were arranged according to their geographic origin: <b>A</b>) Northern Europe, <b>B</b>) Central Europe, <b>C</b>) Southern Europe and <b>D</b>) Indonesia. Symbols represent the mean ± standard error of the mean (n = 3) of the determined growth rates at the respective temperatures. Lines define the fitted thermal performance curves. Clonal descriptions refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598#pone-0030598-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>340017, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thermal_performance_curves_/340017", "title"=>"Thermal performance curves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:00:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/342778", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/342846", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/342894", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/342976"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Ectothermic organisms are thought to be severely affected by global warming since their physiological performance is directly dependent on temperature. Latitudinal and temporal variations in mean temperatures force ectotherms to adapt to these complex environmental conditions. Studies investigating current patterns of thermal adaptation among populations of different latitudes allow a prediction of the potential impact of prospective increases in environmental temperatures on their fitness.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>In this study, temperature reaction norms were ascertained among 18 genetically defined, natural clones of the microbial eukaryote <em>Paramecium caudatum</em>. These different clones have been isolated from 12 freshwater habitats along a latitudinal transect in Europe and from 3 tropical habitats (Indonesia). The sensitivity to increasing temperatures was estimated through the analysis of clone specific thermal tolerances and by relating those to current and predicted temperature data of their natural habitats.</p> <p>All investigated European clones seem to be <em>thermal generalists</em> with a broad thermal tolerance and similar optimum temperatures. The weak or missing co-variation of thermal tolerance with latitude does not imply local adaptation to thermal gradients; it rather suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity among the whole European subpopulation. The tested Indonesian clones appear to be locally adapted to the less variable, tropical temperature regime and show higher tolerance limits, but lower tolerance breadths.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Due to the lack of local temperature adaptation within the European subpopulation, <em>P. caudatum</em> genotypes at the most southern edge of their geographic range seem to suffer from the predicted increase in magnitude and frequency of summer heat waves caused by climate change.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coping", "patterns", "thermal", "adaptation", "microbial", "eukaryote"], "article_id"=>127759, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Coping_with_Temperature_at_the_Warm_Edge_Patterns_of_Thermal_Adaptation_in_the_Microbial_Eukaryote_Paramecium_caudatum_/127759", "title"=>"Coping with Temperature at the Warm Edge – Patterns of Thermal Adaptation in the Microbial Eukaryote <em>Paramecium caudatum</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 02:09:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669823"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Relationship between calculated optimum temperature (<i>T</i><sub>opt</sub>) and maximum growth rate (<i>μ</i><sub>max, cal</sub>) for all investigated <i>P. caudatum</i> clones supporting <i>warmer is better</i>. Symbols represent the mean ± standard error of the mean derived from the nonlinear mixed-effects model <i>nm0a</i> with residual bootstrapping. Significance was tested with Spearman's rank correlation (n = 18, <i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = 0.775, <i>p</i><0.001). <b>B</b>) Trade-off between calculated maximum growth rate (<i>μ</i><sub>max, cal</sub>) and thermal tolerance breadth (TTB = <i>CT</i><sub>max</sub>−<i>CT</i><sub>min</sub>). Symbols represent the mean ± standard error of the mean derived from the nonlinear mixed-effects model <i>nm0a</i> with residual bootstrapping. Significance was tested by using Spearman's rank correlation (n = 18, <i>r<sub>s</sub></i> = −0,554, <i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>340316, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thermal_constraints_/340316", "title"=>"Thermal constraints.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:05:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669952"], "description"=>"<p>For each <i>P. caudatum</i> clone, the calculated critical minimum (<i>CT</i><sub>min</sub>), maximum (<i>CT</i><sub>max</sub>) and optimum temperatures (<i>T</i><sub>opt</sub>) as well as the highest observed (<i>μ</i><sub>max, obs</sub>) and calculated growth rates (<i>μ</i><sub>max, calc</sub>) and thermal tolerance breadths (<i>TTB</i>) are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "clones", "europe"], "article_id"=>340440, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecophysiological_characteristics_of_individual_Paramecium_caudatum_clones_and_the_two_regions_Europe_and_Indonesia_/340440", "title"=>"Ecophysiological characteristics of individual <i>Paramecium caudatum</i> clones and the two regions, Europe and Indonesia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:07:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669408"], "description"=>"<p>The small map shows the sampling points of all investigated <i>P. caudatum</i> clones within this study. The large map illustrates the sample sites within Europe in detail. Codes for clonal <i>P. caudatum</i> cultures refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598#pone-0030598-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["investigated"], "article_id"=>339900, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographic_origin_of_investigated_Paramecium_caudatum_populations_/339900", "title"=>"Geographic origin of investigated <i>Paramecium caudatum</i> populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 02:45:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/670025"], "description"=>"*<p>following the COI haplotype determination of Barth et al. (2006).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["accession"], "article_id"=>340516, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Origin_of_Paramecium_caudatum_clones_genetic_background_and_GenBank_accession_numbers_/340516", "title"=>"Origin of <i>Paramecium caudatum</i> clones, genetic background and GenBank® accession numbers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:08:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/669991"], "description"=>"<p>The null models <i>nm0a</i> and <i>nm0b</i> were fitted with common fixed effects for all regions, model <i>nm2</i> with separate fixed effects for the tropical and the European region and <i>nm4</i> with separate fixed effects for northern, central, southern Europe and the tropical region. For fixed effects the complete set of parameters of the <i>Lactin-2</i> model (<i>ρ</i>, <i>T</i><sub>max</sub>, <i>Δ</i> and <i>λ</i>; cf. Eq.1) was used in all cases. In model <i>nm0a</i>, all four parameters were also used as random effects, while for models <i>nm0b</i>, <i>nm2</i>, and <i>nm4</i> only <i>T</i><sub>max</sub>, <i>Δ</i> and <i>λ</i> were used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nonlinear", "mixed-effects", "models", "levels", "spatial"], "article_id"=>340479, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Sascha Krenek", "Thomas Petzoldt", "Thomas U. Berendonk"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030598.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_nonlinear_mixed_effects_models_with_different_levels_of_spatial_aggregation_/340479", "title"=>"Comparison of nonlinear mixed-effects models with different levels of spatial aggregation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-03-09 00:07:59"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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