Integration of Subthreshold and Suprathreshold Excitatory Barrages along the Somatodendritic Axis of Pyramidal Neurons
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{"title"=>"Integration of subthreshold and suprathreshold excitatory barrages along the somatodendritic axis of pyramidal neurons", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hysell V.", "last_name"=>"Oviedo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508091824"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex D.", "last_name"=>"Reyes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202275604"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84858788417", "sgr"=>"84858788417", "pui"=>"364494682", "pmid"=>"22457793", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0033831"}, "id"=>"684e7bec-a2c9-3c7f-837b-0cc49e7d2794", "abstract"=>"Neurons integrate inputs arriving in different cellular compartments to produce action potentials that are transmitted to other neurons. Because of the voltage- and time-dependent conductances in the dendrites and soma, summation of synaptic inputs is complex. To examine summation of membrane potentials and firing rates, we performed whole-cell recordings from layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons in acute slices of the rat's somatosensory cortex. We delivered subthreshold and suprathreshold stimuli at the soma and several sites on the apical dendrite, and injected inputs that mimic synaptic barrages at individual or distributed sites. We found that summation of subthreshold potentials differed from that of firing rates. Subthreshold summation was linear when barrages were small but became supralinear as barrages increased. When neurons were discharging repetitively the rules were more diverse. At the soma and proximal apical dendrite summation of the evoked firing rates was predominantly sublinear whereas in the distal dendrite summation ranged from supralinear to sublinear. In addition, the integration of inputs delivered at a single location differed from that of distributed inputs only for suprathreshold responses. These results indicate that convergent inputs onto the apical dendrite and soma do not simply summate linearly, as suggested previously, and that distinct presynaptic afferents that target specific sites on the dendritic tree may perform unique sets of computations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/integration-subthreshold-suprathreshold-excitatory-barrages-along-somatodendritic-axis-pyramidal-neu", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663952"], "description"=>"<p>A, Left, Actual and predicted depolarization vs. input rate for one cell stimulated at 115 µm and 300 µm from the soma. Right, Population plot (n = 15) of the actual vs. predicted spatial summation of subthreshold inputs injected at proximal-middle sites. B, Left, Actual and predicted firing rate vs. input rate relation for one cell stimulated at 115 µm and 300 µm from the soma. Right, Population plot (n = 15) of the actual vs. predicted spatial summation of suprathreshold inputs injected at proximal-middle sites. C, Left, Actual and predicted depolarization vs. input rate for one cell stimulated at 100 µm and 500 µm from the soma. Right, Population plot (n = 7) of the actual vs. predicted spatial summation of subthreshold inputs injected at proximal-distal sites. D, Left, Actual and predicted firing rate vs. input rate relation for one cell stimulated at 100 µm and 500 µm from the soma. Right, population plot (n = 7) of the actual vs. predicted spatial summation of suprathreshold inputs injected at proximal-distal sites. In all single cell examples (left column) black lines are polynomial fits through the data. In all population plots (right column) black lines are the unity slopes and gray lines are best linear fit through the data points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inputs", "distributed", "proximal-middle", "proximal-distal", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>334438, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integration_of_inputs_distributed_between_proximal_middle_A_and_B_and_proximal_distal_C_and_D_dendritic_sites_/334438", "title"=>"Integration of inputs distributed between proximal-middle (A and B) and proximal-distal (C and D) dendritic sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663591"], "description"=>"<p>A, top voltage trace is the average depolarization obtained by injecting an input barrage with an EPSC rate of 0.04 kHz. This response was doubled to calculate the predicted depolarization when the input rate is doubled (0.08 kHz). The predicted response is overlaid with the actual response (gray and black middle traces, respectively). The bottom traces compare the actual and predicted responses at a higher input rate. B, Depolarization vs. input rate relation for the cell shown in A. The responses to 0.2 and 0.4 kHz (black bottom trace in A) are highlighted in gray. The dashed line is a linear fit through the first 7 data points. C, Actual vs. predicted depolarization for the cell shown in A and B. The point highlighted in gray corresponds to the actual depolarization measured at an input rate of 0.4 kHz and the prediction from doubling the response to 0.2 kHz (points highlighted in B). D, Population plot of the actual vs. predicted depolarization (n = 19). Shaded area corresponds to expanded data points (insert) and highlights responses between 2–4 mV. E, Summation of suprathreshold inputs at the soma (different cell from that shown in panels A–C). F, Firing rate vs. EPSC rate plot (± S.D.) for the cell shown in E. The firing rates marked a, b, c correspond to the spike trains in A, respectively. G, Actual vs. predicted firing rate for the cell shown E and F. The points highlighted correspond to the actual and predicted firing rates for points b and c in F. H, Population plot (n = 15) for suprathreshold integration at the soma. The solid black line in some plots represents the unity slope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "cell biology", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>334086, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integration_at_the_soma_/334086", "title"=>"Integration at the soma.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:23:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663786"], "description"=>"<p>A, Actual vs. predicted depolarization for one cell when the inputs were injected at the soma (square), proximal-middle (230 µm, circle) and distal dendritic sites (500 µm, star). The same input rates were tested at all locations (0.04, 0.08, and 0.16 kHz). B, Population scatter plot of the actual vs. predicted depolarization at the soma, proximal-middle and distal dendrite. The dash lines are linear fits through the data points. For each cell plotted (n = 7) summation was tested at all three locations. The black line in both panels represents the unity slope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subthreshold", "somatodendritic"], "article_id"=>334280, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_subthreshold_integration_along_the_somatodendritic_axis_/334280", "title"=>"Summary of subthreshold integration along the somatodendritic axis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664108"], "description"=>"<p>Rules of integration for inputs injected at a single location along the somatodendritic axis (SPATIALLY CLUSTERED), injected simultaneously (SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED) and injected under dynamic clamp (SHUNTING). Rows correspond to subthreshold (SUB) and suprathreshold (SUPRA) integration. PROX MID = stimulation of proximal to middle sites, PROX+MID = simultaneous stimulation of proximal and middle sites, PROX+DIST = simultaneous stimulation of proximal and distal sites, L = linear, SP = supralinear, SB = sublinear.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "cell biology", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>334602, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_integration_rules_/334602", "title"=>"Summary of integration rules.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664077"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of the changes in integration with the spatial distribution of the inputs. The spatially clustered column corresponds to input delivered at individual somatodendritic locations. The spatially distributed column corresponds to inputs delivered to two dendritic locations simultaneously.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["properties"], "article_id"=>334573, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_properties_of_integration_/334573", "title"=>"Spatial properties of integration.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663505"], "description"=>"<p>A, left, EPSPs recorded at the sites of injection (EPSP<sub>d1</sub>, EPSP<sub>d2</sub>) and at the soma (EPSP<sub>d1→s</sub>, EPSP<sub>d2→s</sub>). Electrodes at d<sub>1</sub> and d<sub>2</sub> were placed 150 µm and 334 µm, respectively, from the soma. Right, Depolarizations (termed composite EPSPs or cEPSPs) recorded at the dendrite (cEPSP<sub>d1</sub>, cEPSP<sub>d2</sub>) and at the soma (cEPSP<sub>d1→s</sub>, cEPSP<sub>d2→s</sub>) when EPSC barrages (rate = 0.24 kHz) were injected at d<sub>1</sub> or d<sub>2</sub>. B, Injecting the inputs at a single location to test if doubling the response evoked by n inputs equals the response to injecting 2n. C, The linear prediction of the firing rate incorporates the contribution of the inputs needed to reach threshold. Left, LIF model: the y-intercept (arrow) of the F vs. n relation was used as the correction factor (F<sub>0</sub>) for the linear prediction. Right, LIF model: plot of the actual and predicted firing rate with (□) and without (⧫) compensating for the inputs needed for threshold. D, Spatial summation: the response to inputs injected simultaneously at two separate dendritic locations (A and B) was compared to the sum of the inputs delivered individually. The total number of inputs injected at each location individually and simultaneously was identical. E, left, For spatial summation in the subthreshold range, the linear prediction was calculated by adding the depolarization measured by injecting n inputs (e.g. n = 5, points highlighted in gray) at each dendritic location individually. Right, The actual sum of the inputs was obtained by simultaneous injection of n inputs at each location (i.e. n<sub>locationA</sub>+n<sub>locationB</sub> = 10 in data point highlighted in gray). F, left, For suprathreshold spatial summation, the predicted firing rate was calculated by adding the firing rates obtained by injecting n inputs (e.g. n = 10, points highlighted in gray) at each location individually. The correction for voltage threshold was calculated by taking the average of the y-intercepts (F<sub>0</sub>′, F<sub>0</sub>) of the F vs. n relation for each location. Right, The actual sum of the inputs was obtained by simultaneous injection of n inputs at each location (i.e. n<sub>locationA</sub>+n<sub>locationB</sub> = 20, in data point highlighted in gray).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epsps", "linearly-predicted", "summation"], "article_id"=>333997, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Matching_EPSPs_and_calculating_the_linearly_predicted_summation_of_inputs_/333997", "title"=>"Matching EPSPs and calculating the linearly-predicted summation of inputs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:22:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663889"], "description"=>"<p>A, left, Schematic of the stimulus delivery and recording set-up under dynamic clamp. Two electrodes (<10 µm apart) were placed at the proximal-middle dendrite, and a third was placed at the soma to record the output. Right, The amplitudes of the unitary excitatory postsynaptic conductances (EPSGs) and EPSCs (top traces) injected at the dendrite were adjusted so that the resulting EPSPs at the soma (E<sub>d→s</sub>) were identical (overlaid on bottom traces). B, Subthreshold (left) and suprathreshold (right) input/output relations under dynamic (•) and current clamp (□) for one cell (injection site: 260 µm from soma). C, left, Population plot of subthreshold integration under dynamic clamp showing the actual vs. predicted depolarization (n = 8). The gray line is the linear fit through the data points. Right, percent difference in the linearity (± S.D.) of integration between current and dynamic clamp plotted against input rate for the population data shown on the left. D, left, Population data for suprathreshold integration under dynamic clamp (n = 8). Right, Plot of difference in linearity between current and dynamic clamp for the data shown in left panel. The solid black line in some plots represents the unity slope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["properties"], "article_id"=>334384, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_integration_properties_under_current_and_dynamic_clamp_/334384", "title"=>"Comparison of integration properties under current and dynamic clamp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663668"], "description"=>"<p>A, left, Depolarization vs. EPSC rate relation for inputs injected at the soma (•) and dendrite (□, 270 µm away from soma) of the same neuron. Right, Suprathreshold continuation of the input-output relation. The inset shows the range of dendritic distances tested for integration of proximal-middle inputs. B, Population plots of the actual vs. predicted summation of subthreshold (left) and suprathreshold inputs (right) injected at proximal-middle sites (n = 15). Right, Black data points (and the corresponding spike trains) are the responses to a doubling of the input rate. The solid black line in some plots represents the unity slope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inputs", "injected", "proximal-middle", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>334161, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integration_of_inputs_injected_at_proximal_middle_dendritic_sites_/334161", "title"=>"Integration of inputs injected at proximal-middle dendritic sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663736"], "description"=>"<p>A, left, Depolarization vs. input rate relation for inputs injected at the soma (•) and dendrite (□, 500 µm from the soma) of the same neuron. Right, suprathreshold continuation of the input-output relation. B, Population scatter plot of the actual vs. predicted summation of subthreshold (left) and suprathreshold (right) inputs injected at distal sites (n = 8). Right, Black data points (and the corresponding spike trains) are the responses to a doubling of the input rate. The solid black line in some plots represents the unity slope.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inputs", "injected", "distal", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>334229, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Integration_of_inputs_injected_at_distal_dendritic_sites_/334229", "title"=>"Integration of inputs injected at distal dendritic sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:23:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/664026"], "description"=>"<p>A, Summary (n = 15) for inputs injected at individual locations (soma, proximal-middle and distal dendrite). For each location a summation ratio (actual response/expected response, ± S.D.) was calculated for subthreshold (black bars) and suprathreshold (gray bars) responses. The dotted line marks a summation ratio of 1 (actual response = expected response, indicating linear integration). B, Summary (n = 7) of integration of spatially distributed inputs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["properties", "somatodendritic"], "article_id"=>334520, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_integration_properties_along_the_somatodendritic_axis_/334520", "title"=>"Summary of integration properties along the somatodendritic axis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:25:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/663833"], "description"=>"<p>A, Population scatter plot (n = 5) of the actual vs. predicted depolarization in the presence of the I<sub>NaP</sub> blocker Riluzole. Most points lie on the unity slope line. B, Percent difference in the linearity (± S.D.) of summation between control and I<sub>NaP</sub> block conditions plotted against input rate for the population of cells shown in A. C, Actual vs. predicted firing rate (n = 5) in the presence of Riluzole. D, Percent difference in the linearity of the firing rate between control and I<sub>NaP</sub> block conditions for the data shown in C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blocking", "properties", "proximal-middle", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>334329, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Hysell V. Oviedo", "Alex D. Reyes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033831.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_blocking_I_NaP_on_the_integration_properties_of_proximal_middle_dendritic_sites_/334329", "title"=>"Effects of blocking I<sub>NaP</sub> on the integration properties of proximal-middle dendritic sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:24:17"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[325, 542, 658, 757, 836, 925, 1015, 1095, 1177, 1263, 1338, 1411, 1477, 1537, 1599, 1663, 1726, 1795, 1857, 1921, 1979, 2041, 2099, 2150, 2205]}]}
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