Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices in Trust Games with or without Information about Past Behavior
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{"title"=>"Unfakeable facial configurations affect strategic choices in trust games with or without information about past behavior", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Constantin", "last_name"=>"Rezlescu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55151544000"}, {"first_name"=>"Brad", "last_name"=>"Duchaine", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603600901"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher Y.", "last_name"=>"Olivola", "scopus_author_id"=>"23467235200"}, {"first_name"=>"Nick", "last_name"=>"Chater", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007185366"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84859098673", "sgr"=>"84859098673", "pui"=>"364528785", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22470553", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0034293"}, "id"=>"2b79dc81-ec3d-314e-82a6-3bd2ac14608d", "abstract"=>"Background Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1) the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2) how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that unfakeable facial features associated with the appearance of trustworthiness attract higher investments in trust games. The facial trustworthiness premium is large for decisions based solely on faces, with trustworthy identities attracting 42% more money (Study 1), and remains significant though reduced to 6% when reputational information is also available (Study 2). The face trustworthiness premium persists with real (rather than virtual) currency and when higher payoffs are at stake (Study 3). Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cooperation may be affected not only by controllable appearance cues (e.g., clothing, facial expressions) as shown previously, but also by features that are impossible to mimic (e.g., individual facial structure). This unfakeable face trustworthiness effect is not limited to the rare situations where people lack any information about their partners, but survives in richer environments where relevant details about partner past behavior are available.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/unfakeable-facial-configurations-affect-strategic-choices-trust-games-without-information-about-past", "reader_count"=>131, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>5, "Computer Science"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>10, "Engineering"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>77, "Social Sciences"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>77}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Turkey"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>3, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/661972"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of the trustee behavioral histories shown to participants in Study 2. (A) Behavioral history from a “Bad” history trial with two very low (white boxes), five medium-low (light blue), two medium-high (intense blue) and no very high (dark blue) return rates. (B) Behavioral history from a “Good” history trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>332464, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Constantin Rezlescu", "Brad Duchaine", "Christopher Y. Olivola", "Nick Chater"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034293.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioral_history_stimuli_/332464", "title"=>"Behavioral history stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:14:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/661910"], "description"=>"<p>Face identities of the same computer character varied on the trustworthiness scale. For each character, we selected the faces found at −3 and +3 SD on the trustworthiness scale (indicated here with arrows). In Study 3, we altered some of the selected faces to ensure direct gaze for all stimuli.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>332399, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Constantin Rezlescu", "Brad Duchaine", "Christopher Y. Olivola", "Nick Chater"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034293.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_face_stimuli_/332399", "title"=>"Examples of face stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:14:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/661848"], "description"=>"<p>Note that behavioral histories are represented on two different scales: the blue scale corresponds to Bad history trials; the green scale corresponds to Good history trials. Main effects of both behavioral history and face identity were significant. Error bars represent standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amounts", "invested", "untrustworthy", "trustworthy", "identities"], "article_id"=>332327, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Constantin Rezlescu", "Brad Duchaine", "Christopher Y. Olivola", "Nick Chater"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034293.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_amounts_invested_in_Untrustworthy_and_Trustworthy_face_identities_with_8220_Good_8221_and_8220_Bad_8221_behavioral_histories_/332327", "title"=>"Average amounts invested in Untrustworthy and Trustworthy face identities with “Good” and “Bad” behavioral histories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 07:13:53"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[308, 530, 649, 751, 844, 933, 1021, 1107, 1194, 1277, 1357, 1426, 1501, 1572, 1634, 1702, 1768, 1838, 1910, 1976, 2046, 2114, 2181, 2241, 2298]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[354, 559, 676, 770, 854, 949, 1040, 1128, 1220, 1295, 1364, 1439, 1511, 1580, 1636, 1693, 1753, 1808, 1882, 1944, 2019, 2070, 2120, 2176, 2247]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[354, 585, 710, 810, 904, 998, 1090, 1181, 1268, 1361, 1435, 1525, 1594, 1657, 1731, 1813, 1878, 1948, 2016, 2094, 2158, 2219, 2294, 2347, 2410]}]}
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