A Fluorescent Chromatophore Changes the Level of Fluorescence in a Reef Fish
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{"title"=>"A fluorescent chromatophore changes the level of fluorescence in a reef fish", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthias F.", "last_name"=>"Wucherer", "scopus_author_id"=>"25230737700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nico K.", "last_name"=>"Michiels", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003545222"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862021620", "pui"=>"364979267", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0037913", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84862021620", "pmid"=>"22701587"}, "id"=>"6ebbe51e-1430-346e-aec3-6863d38ab12c", "abstract"=>"Body coloration plays a major role in fish ecology and is predominantly generated using two principles: a) absorbance combined with reflection of the incoming light in pigment colors and b) scatter, refraction, diffraction and interference in structural colors. Poikilotherms, and especially fishes possess several cell types, so-called chromatophores, which employ either of these principles. Together, they generate the dynamic, multi-color patterns used in communication and camouflage. Several chromatophore types possess motile organelles, which enable rapid changes in coloration. Recently, we described red fluorescence in a number of marine fish and argued that it may be used for private communication in an environment devoid of red. Here, we describe the discovery of a chromatophore in fishes that regulates the distribution of fluorescent pigments in parts of the skin. These cells have a dendritic shape and contain motile fluorescent particles. We show experimentally that the fluorescent particles can be aggregated or dispersed through hormonal and nervous control. This is the first description of a stable and natural cytoskeleton-related fluorescence control mechanism in vertebrate cells. Its nervous control supports suggestions that fluorescence could act as a context-dependent signal in some marine fish species and encourages further research in this field. The fluorescent substance is stable under different chemical conditions and shows no discernible bleaching under strong, constant illumination.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fluorescent-chromatophore-changes-level-fluorescence-reef-fish", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627256"], "description"=>"<p>Confocal Laser scanning microscopy, excitation 510 nm. Fluorosomes are the only visible structures within the fluorescent cell, but in the dispersed state they show the cell outline as they fill the cytoplasm entirely. Scale bar  = 30 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescent"], "article_id"=>297755, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_a_fluorescent_chromatophore_/297755", "title"=>"Morphology of a fluorescent chromatophore.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:09:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627660"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Erythrophores (red) and melanophores (black) are visible in bright field microscopy. <b>b</b>) Fluorescent chromatophores appear in fluorescence microscopy. <b>c</b>) Overlay of a) and b). Note that erythrophores, melanophores and fluorescent chromatophores are spatially distributed and can be distinguished. Scale bar  = 400 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melanophores", "fluorescent", "chromatophores", "interradial", "membrane", "dorsal", "fin"], "article_id"=>298147, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_erythrophores_melanophores_and_fluorescent_chromatophores_in_the_interradial_membrane_of_a_dorsal_fin_of_E_pellucida_/298147", "title"=>"Distribution of erythrophores, melanophores and fluorescent chromatophores in the interradial membrane of a dorsal fin of <i>E. pellucida</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:15:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627790"], "description"=>"<p>Classified according to melanophore index 5 (a) through melanophore index 1 (e, respectively). In a completely dispersed state (a) the nucleus becomes visible as there is only little cytoplasm one the apical and basal side of the nucleus in these flat cells. In the aggregated state (e), the nucleus is tightly packed with fluorosomes. Scale bar  = 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "cell biology", "physiology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>298283, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aggregation_of_fluorescence_/298283", "title"=>"Aggregation of fluorescence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:18:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/628015"], "description"=>"<p>Different chromatophores (according to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913#pone.0037913-Bagnara1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>, modified).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromatophores"], "article_id"=>298510, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_chromatophores_according_to_9_modified_/298510", "title"=>"Different chromatophores (according to [9], modified).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:21:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627581"], "description"=>"<p>Fluorescence has a maximum at around 595 nm (dashed line) with an optimal excitation wavelength around 500 nm (solid line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["excitation", "fluorescent", "pigment"], "article_id"=>298075, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectra_of_excitation_and_emission_of_the_fluorescent_pigment_in_fluorescent_chromatophores_/298075", "title"=>"Spectra of excitation and emission of the fluorescent pigment in fluorescent chromatophores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:14:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325270", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/325355"], "description"=>"<div><p>Body coloration plays a major role in fish ecology and is predominantly generated using two principles: a) absorbance combined with reflection of the incoming light in pigment colors and b) scatter, refraction, diffraction and interference in structural colors. Poikilotherms, and especially fishes possess several cell types, so-called chromatophores, which employ either of these principles. Together, they generate the dynamic, multi-color patterns used in communication and camouflage. Several chromatophore types possess motile organelles, which enable rapid changes in coloration. Recently, we described red fluorescence in a number of marine fish and argued that it may be used for private communication in an environment devoid of red. Here, we describe the discovery of a chromatophore in fishes that regulates the distribution of fluorescent pigments in parts of the skin. These cells have a dendritic shape and contain motile fluorescent particles. We show experimentally that the fluorescent particles can be aggregated or dispersed through hormonal and nervous control. This is the first description of a stable and natural cytoskeleton-related fluorescence control mechanism in vertebrate cells. Its nervous control supports suggestions that fluorescence could act as a context-dependent signal in some marine fish species and encourages further research in this field. The fluorescent substance is stable under different chemical conditions and shows no discernible bleaching under strong, constant illumination.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescent", "chromatophore", "changes", "fluorescence", "reef"], "article_id"=>124217, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Fluorescent_Chromatophore_Changes_the_Level_of_Fluorescence_in_a_Reef_Fish/124217", "title"=>"A Fluorescent Chromatophore Changes the Level of Fluorescence in a Reef Fish", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 01:10:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627933"], "description"=>"<p>Bars show results of neuronal and hormonal manipulation in terms of normalized fluorescent area in interradial membranes of <i>E. pellucida</i> before (white bars) and after treatment (shaded bars, respectively). Neuronal K<sup>+</sup> stimulation significantly decreased fluorescent area (paired t-test, t = 10.5, df = 5, p<0.005). The Lidocain-treatment effectively inhibited this effect (paired t-test, t = 1.86, df = 4, p>0.13). Neurotransmitter-induced aggregation of fluorosomes (NA) was highly significant (paired t-test, t = 4.67, df = 9, p<0.001). Aggregation induced by MCH was significant (paired t-test, t = 5.19, df = 3, p<0.013) as well as α–MSH significantly induced dispersal in pre-aggregated cells (paired Wilcoxon, Z = 10.5, df = 5, p = 0.03). Bars include standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "cell biology", "physiology", "neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>298423, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_cell_manipulation_/298423", "title"=>"Results of cell manipulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:20:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/627395"], "description"=>"<p>Histological cross-section of first dorsal fin of <i>E. pellucida</i> (fluorescence microscopy): M = Melanophore, F = Fluorescent Chromatophore, FR = Fin Ray, H = Hypodermis, SP = Stratum spongiosum. Scale bar  = 500 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescent", "chromatophores"], "article_id"=>297893, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Physiology", "Neuroscience", "Cell Biology", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Matthias F. Wucherer", "Nico K. Michiels"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037913.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Position_of_fluorescent_chromatophores_in_situ_/297893", "title"=>"Position of fluorescent chromatophores in situ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-06 02:11:33"}

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Relative Metric

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