Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?
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{"title"=>"Do bat gantries and underpasses help bats cross roads safely?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anna", "last_name"=>"Berthinussen", "scopus_author_id"=>"53979444500"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Altringham", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003409521"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"364996207", "sgr"=>"84862193989", "pmid"=>"22719941", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862193989", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038775", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"d95d192a-bd6d-34fd-977c-752a33ccd1b0", "abstract"=>"Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bat-gantries-underpasses-help-bats-cross-roads-safely", "reader_count"=>142, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>34, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>96, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>96}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>34}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/324353"], "description"=>"<div><p>Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gantries", "underpasses", "bats", "roads"], "article_id"=>124008, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Do_Bat_Gantries_and_Underpasses_Help_Bats_Cross_Roads_Safely_/124008", "title"=>"Do Bat Gantries and Underpasses Help Bats Cross Roads Safely?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:06:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/624668"], "description"=>"<p>The crossing behaviour of all bats from all surveys for each study site (NB the number of bats crossing at safe heights at the gantries includes those ‘using’ the gantry).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crossing", "behaviour", "bats", "surveys", "heights", "gantries", "includes"], "article_id"=>295157, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_crossing_behaviour_of_all_bats_from_all_surveys_for_each_study_site_NB_the_number_of_bats_crossing_at_safe_heights_at_the_gantries_includes_those_8216_using_8217_the_gantry_/295157", "title"=>"The crossing behaviour of all bats from all surveys for each study site (NB the number of bats crossing at safe heights at the gantries includes those ‘using’ the gantry).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:25:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/624136"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775#pone-0038775-g001\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Figure 1B</b></a><b>.</b> Map of the study sites on the A590.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gantry"], "article_id"=>294630, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photograph_of_a_typical_bat_gantry_A590_/294630", "title"=>"Photograph of a typical bat gantry (A590).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:17:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/624565"], "description"=>"<p>Median with upper and lower quartiles. Significant differences shown for <i>Myotis</i> and <i>Pipistrellus</i> species ** <i>P</i><0.0005, *** <i>P</i><0.0001. Excludes underpass sites. Verges are elevated on either side of the road and are above road height, therefore negative values indicate bats flying across the road below the height of the verge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["verge", "crossing", "bats"], "article_id"=>295056, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplot_of_flight_height_above_verge_height_of_identified_crossing_bats_at_all_sites_/295056", "title"=>"Boxplot of flight height above verge height of identified crossing bats at all sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:24:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/624476"], "description"=>"<p>Gaussian kernel and bandwidth of 1 m used (n = 1078). The section of severed woodland at the A66 site is shown. The gantry is located at distance 0 m (height marked by square), and the pre-construction commuting route at 10–15 m. ‘Unsafe’ crossing heights are located below the dashed line. The dotted line marked verge shows the decrease in verge height above the road from left to right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimation", "crossing", "bats", "a66"], "article_id"=>294969, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kernel_intensity_estimation_of_the_density_of_crossing_bats_across_the_A66_site_/294969", "title"=>"Kernel intensity estimation of the density of crossing bats across the A66 site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:22:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/624343"], "description"=>"<p>Boxplots (median with upper and lower quartiles) of the number of bats crossing per survey (n = 10) at the four bat gantries, together with data on total number crossing, the numbers crossing at safe and unsafe heights, numbers ‘using’ the gantry according to both estimates (within 2 and 5 m), and the numbers crossing at nearby, unmitigated, severed commuting route nearby.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bats", "crossing"], "article_id"=>294839, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplots_of_the_number_of_bats_crossing_per_survey_at_each_bat_gantry_/294839", "title"=>"Boxplots of the number of bats crossing per survey at each bat gantry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:20:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/624254"], "description"=>"<p>Boxplots (median with upper and lower quartiles) for the number of bats crossing per survey (n = 10) at each underpass (numbers crossing using underpass, over the road above and at safe and unsafe heights over the road), and at the unmitigated commuting route on the A590 which was diverted to underpass A (numbers crossing over the road and at safe and unsafe heights).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bats", "crossing"], "article_id"=>294753, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna Berthinussen", "John Altringham"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038775.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplots_of_the_number_of_bats_crossing_per_survey_at_each_underpass_/294753", "title"=>"Boxplots of the number of bats crossing per survey at each underpass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-13 01:19:13"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biomechanics", "average_usage"=>[307, 515, 633, 733, 821, 912, 1008, 1100, 1202, 1281, 1363, 1425, 1481, 1569, 1644, 1721, 1788, 1842, 1913, 1975, 2020, 2087, 2135, 2175, 2228]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[308, 500, 607, 700, 782, 876, 957, 1039, 1128, 1214, 1290, 1365, 1431, 1496, 1560, 1634, 1695, 1772, 1839, 1908, 1972, 2043, 2106, 2179, 2246]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Civil engineering", "average_usage"=>[412, 600, 754, 872, 991, 1166, 1328, 1417, 1536, 1678, 1774, 1853, 1938, 2011, 2089, 2199, 2316, 2429, 2522, 2589, 2656, 2723, 2785, 2845, 2888, 2984]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Transportation", "average_usage"=>[392, 602, 694, 793, 880, 993, 1145, 1215, 1308, 1375, 1423, 1555, 1642, 1726, 1784, 1875, 1953, 2027, 2109, 2199, 2279, 2354, 2423, 2507, 2574, 2651]}]}
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