Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish
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{"title"=>"Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: A case study of a heavily targeted Reef fish", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Brett M.", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"36440434900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer L.", "last_name"=>"McIlwain", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004916250"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander M.", "last_name"=>"Kerr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201359104"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862741888", "sgr"=>"84862741888", "pui"=>"365093310", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"22761836", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0039599"}, "id"=>"49ac0f41-b803-3b37-8e92-32355006d1a7", "abstract"=>"<p>Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, <italic>Lethrinus harak</italic> around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on <italic>L. harak</italic> demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/marine-reserves-reproductive-biomass-case-study-heavily-targeted-reef-fish", "reader_count"=>66, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>21}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618828"], "description"=>"<p>Source of values indicated by asterisk:</p>*<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599#pone.0039599-Taylor1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>;</p>**<p>present study;</p>***<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599#pone.0039599-Taylor2\" target=\"_blank\">[68]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameter", "age-structured"], "article_id"=>289325, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_description_and_values_for_each_parameter_used_in_the_age_structured_population_model_/289325", "title"=>"The description and values for each parameter used in the age-structured population model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:35:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618268"], "description"=>"<p>Values for panels (A) and (B) are per 1000 m<sup>2</sup> and error bars represent standard error. Note that the absence of bars may not represent zero values as some habitats did not occur in certain sites (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599#pone-0039599-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomass", "spawner"], "article_id"=>288766, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_density_adult_density_biomass_and_spawner_biomass_of_Lethrinus_harak_by_habitat_type_at_each_study_site_/288766", "title"=>"Mean density, adult density, biomass and spawner biomass of <i>Lethrinus harak</i> by habitat type at each study site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:26:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618953"], "description"=>"<p>Total population size, biomass and spawner biomass estimates of <i>L. harak</i> for each site, calculated from stratified visual surveys.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomass", "spawner", "estimates", "calculated", "stratified"], "article_id"=>289447, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_population_size_biomass_and_spawner_biomass_estimates_of_L_harak_for_each_site_calculated_from_stratified_visual_surveys_/289447", "title"=>"Total population size, biomass and spawner biomass estimates of <i>L. harak</i> for each site, calculated from stratified visual surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:37:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618860"], "description"=>"<p>Only significant comparisons of <i>post hoc</i> tests are presented. NS  =  not significant, Prot  =  Protected, MC  =  macroalgae, SG  =  seagrass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nested", "anova", "tukey", "comparisons"], "article_id"=>289353, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>267, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_nested_ANOVA_and_post_hoc_Tukey_comparisons_showing_the_influence_of_protection_status_site_within_protection_status_and_habitat_on_the_mean_fork_length_of_Lethrinus_harak_/289353", "title"=>"Results of the nested ANOVA and <i>post hoc</i> Tukey comparisons showing the influence of protection status, site within protection status and habitat on the mean fork length of <i>Lethrinus harak</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:35:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618893"], "description"=>"<p>N<sub>h</sub> represents the theoretical maximum number of transects that could be fit into habitat <i>h</i> without overlap, W<sub>h</sub> is the proportional habitat area, n<sub>h</sub> is the number of transects allocated to habitat <i>h</i>, x<sub>h</sub> is the mean number of fish per transect for habitat <i>h</i>, s<sub>h</sub><sup>2</sup> is the variance surrounding the density estimate for habitat <i>h</i>, <i>n</i> is the total number of transects at a site, and s<sup>2</sup>(x<sub>strat</sub>) is the variance surrounding the stratified mean density for the entire site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "optimal", "stratified-random", "sampling"], "article_id"=>289383, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_abundance_of_L_harak_at_each_site_estimated_from_an_optimal_stratified_random_sampling_design_/289383", "title"=>"Total abundance of <i>L. harak</i> at each site estimated from an optimal stratified-random sampling design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618187"], "description"=>"<p>The distribution of the six primary habitat types are color-coded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "reef", "piti", "achang", "rios"], "article_id"=>288678, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Benthic_habitat_maps_of_the_reef_flat_at_Piti_Marine_Preserve_East_Aga_241_a_Bay_Achang_Marine_Preserve_and_Rios_Bay_/288678", "title"=>"Benthic habitat maps of the reef flat at Piti Marine Preserve, East Agaña Bay, Achang Marine Preserve, and Rios Bay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:24:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618924"], "description"=>"<p>Only significant comparisons of <i>post hoc</i> tests are presented. NS  =  not significant, Prot  =  Protected, Ach  =  Achang Marine Preserve, Eab  =  East Agaña Bay, Pi  =  Piti Marine Preserve, Ri  =  Rios Bay, SG  =  seagrass, SD  =  sand, MC  =  macroalgae, TP  =  turf pavement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nested", "anova", "tukey", "comparisons", "estimates"], "article_id"=>289415, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_nested_ANOVA_and_post_hoc_Tukey_comparisons_of_Lethrinus_harak_population_estimates_on_Guam_/289415", "title"=>"Results of the nested ANOVA and <i>post hoc</i> Tukey comparisons of <i>Lethrinus harak</i> population estimates on Guam.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/321575", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/321606", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/321663"], "description"=>"<div><p>Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself) is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, <em>Lethrinus harak</em> around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on <em>L. harak</em> demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reserves", "reproductive", "targeted", "reef"], "article_id"=>123484, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Marine_Reserves_and_Reproductive_Biomass_A_Case_Study_of_a_Heavily_Targeted_Reef_Fish/123484", "title"=>"Marine Reserves and Reproductive Biomass: A Case Study of a Heavily Targeted Reef Fish", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 00:58:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618069"], "description"=>"<p>Protected sites include Piti Marine Preserve and Achang Marine Preserve. Fished sites include East Agaña Bay and Rios Bay.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites"], "article_id"=>288562, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_study_sites_on_Guam_/288562", "title"=>"Location of study sites on Guam.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:22:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618599"], "description"=>"<p>The change in spawner biomass, total population abundance, and proportion of males for <i>Lethrinus harak</i> within Achang Marine Preserve over twenty years under four management scenarios and two spawner-recruit steepness values. Data are mean outputs of 1000 model simulations for each scenario.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections"], "article_id"=>289098, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_projections_of_various_population_parameters_/289098", "title"=>"Model projections of various population parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:31:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618745"], "description"=>"<p>The time (years) required for replenishment of spawner biomass (y-axis) in Achang Marine Preserve proportional to an assumed pristine state following a given period of unrestricted fishing (x-axis, up to 20 years). This is presented for two spawner-recruit steepness values, A) <i>h</i>  = 0.8 and B) <i>h</i>  = 0.6. Contour lines represent the proportional biomass relative to a pristine state (for example: in B, after 10 years of unrestricted fishing, ∼6% of biomass remains compared to a pristine level. After 10 subsequent years of protection, the proportion has risen to 40% of pristine).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>289240, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_recovery_trajectories_/289240", "title"=>"Projected recovery trajectories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:34:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618401"], "description"=>"<p>Data collected from stratified-random visual surveys combined proportionally across habitat types. Dashed lines indicate mean fork length for each site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "piti", "achang", "rios"], "article_id"=>288892, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_size_frequency_distributions_of_Lethrinus_harak_for_A_Piti_Marine_Preserve_B_East_Aga_a_Bay_C_Achang_Marine_Preserve_and_D_Rios_Bay_/288892", "title"=>"Total size frequency distributions of <i>Lethrinus harak</i> for A) Piti Marine Preserve, B) East Agaña Bay, C) Achang Marine Preserve and D) Rios Bay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:28:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618468"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars represent standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>288967, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_fork_length_of_Lethrinus_harak_by_habitat_type_seagrass_and_macroalgae_and_protection_status_at_each_of_the_four_study_sites_/288967", "title"=>"Mean fork length of <i>Lethrinus harak</i> by habitat type (seagrass and macroalgae) and protection status at each of the four study sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:29:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618674"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of marine preserve maintenance, removal, and modification on population age structure of <i>Lethrinus harak</i> within Achang Marine Preserve after ten years of management. Error bars represent standard deviation of the mean estimate after 1000 random simulations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["age-frequency"], "article_id"=>289170, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_age_frequency_distributions_/289170", "title"=>"Projected age-frequency distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:32:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/618538"], "description"=>"<p>Data collected from stratified-random visual surveys. Dashed lines indicate mean fork length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distributions", "seagrass", "habitats"], "article_id"=>289033, "categories"=>["Inorganic Chemistry", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Brett M. Taylor", "Jennifer L. McIlwain", "Alexander M. Kerr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039599.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Size_frequency_distributions_of_Lethrinus_harak_for_seagrass_and_all_other_habitats_combined_at_each_site_/289033", "title"=>"Size frequency distributions of <i>Lethrinus harak</i> for seagrass and all other habitats (combined) at each site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-06-26 02:30:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
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Relative Metric

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