Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids
Publication Date
September 17, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Clive Finlayson, Kimberly Brown, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, et al
Volume
7
Issue
9
Pages
e45927
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0045927
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029321
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444460
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23029321
Web of Science
000309742800066
Scopus
84866443111
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/birds-feather-neanderthal-exploitation-raptors-corvids
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Clive", "last_name"=>"Finlayson", "scopus_author_id"=>"25821841300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kimberly", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"55343903600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth", "last_name"=>"Blasco", "scopus_author_id"=>"23099008800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jordi", "last_name"=>"Rosell", "scopus_author_id"=>"35747067100"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan José", "last_name"=>"Negro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005076476"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary R.", "last_name"=>"Bortolotti", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005648561"}, {"first_name"=>"Geraldine", "last_name"=>"Finlayson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005300842"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Sánchez Marco", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508189110"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisco", "last_name"=>"Giles Pacheco", "scopus_author_id"=>"15046621600"}, {"first_name"=>"Joaquín", "last_name"=>"Rodríguez Vidal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603358835"}, {"first_name"=>"José S.", "last_name"=>"Carrión", "scopus_author_id"=>"35512188400"}, {"first_name"=>"Darren A.", "last_name"=>"Fa", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506238576"}, {"first_name"=>"José M.", "last_name"=>"Rodríguez Llanes", "scopus_author_id"=>"27467726800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866443111", "pui"=>"365675387", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045927", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84866443111", "pmid"=>"23029321"}, "id"=>"0f5b9e6a-7d1f-3a86-aa6c-6125ea5d95a2", "abstract"=>"The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of Modern Humans, constitute a major advance in the study of human evolution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/birds-feather-neanderthal-exploitation-raptors-corvids", "reader_count"=>180, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>42, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>42, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>13, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Arts and Humanities"=>63, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>33}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>33}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>13}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>63}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Portugal"=>2, "Spain"=>6, "New Zealand"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>2, "Croatia"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84866443111"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84866443111?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84866443111&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84866443111&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84866443111", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84866443111", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84866443111", "dc:title"=>"Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids", "dc:creator"=>"Finlayson C.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"7", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"9", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-09-17", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"17 September 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045927", "citedby-count"=>"106", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Gibraltar Museum", "affiliation-city"=>"Gibraltar", "affiliation-country"=>"Gibraltar"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Toronto", "affiliation-city"=>"Toronto", "affiliation-country"=>"Canada"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23029321", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e45927", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Article Coverage

Article Coverage Curated

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0045927", "share_count"=>3, "like_count"=>1, "comment_count"=>1, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>5}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"643", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"7542"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"179", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"1802"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"119", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"731"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"436"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"521"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"511"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"396"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"280"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"326"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"243"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"198"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"236"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"212"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"271"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"322"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"256"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"222"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"196"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"248"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"205"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"346"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1208"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"330"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"309"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"188"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"484"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"205"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"376"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"219"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"252"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"143"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"173"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"178"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"284"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"164"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"201"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"248"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"172"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"105", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"189"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"94", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"261"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"259"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"179"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"177"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"210"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"383"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"278"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"225"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"167"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"214"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"227"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"197"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"157"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"450"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"160"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"129"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"81"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"177"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"182"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"214"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"168"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576937"], "description"=>"<p>Cm: cut-marks; Oext: over-extending; Bur: burning; BnBr: fresh bone breakage; HTm: human tooth-marks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mni", "anthropogenic", "remains", "gibraltar"], "article_id"=>247416, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clive Finlayson", "Kimberly Brown", "Ruth Blasco", "Jordi Rosell", "Juan José Negro", "Gary R. Bortolotti", "Geraldine Finlayson", "Antonio Sánchez Marco", "Francisco Giles Pacheco", "Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal", "José S. Carrión", "Darren A. Fa", "José M. Rodríguez Llanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NISP_MNE_MNI_and_anthropogenic_damage_on_bird_remains_from_Gibraltar_sites_/247416", "title"=>"NISP, MNE, MNI and anthropogenic damage on bird remains from Gibraltar sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-17 02:03:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576882"], "description"=>"<p>The table is divided into three sections, the first covering scavenging birds, the second non-scavenging cliff-nesting birds and the third covering the remaining species. Scavengers are separated into type 1 (obligate) and type 2 (facultative, ranging from frequent to occasional). Scavengers that are also cliff nesters are assigned an * if they are solitary nesters and ** if they are colonial. Each species is allocated to a size class according to the following scale: 1 - all individuals <100 g; 2 - some individuals <100 g and others between 100 and 1 kg; 3 – all individuals between 100 and 1 kg; 4 – some individuals between 100 g-1 kg and others between 1–10 kg; 5 all individuals between 1 and 10 kg; and 6 some individuals between 1–10 kg and others >10 kg. Species which are overrepresented in Palaeolithic sites (Middle and Upper) compared to paleontological sites, tested by chi-square (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927#pone.0045927.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>), are indicated by a “yes”. Species that are overrepresented in Middle over Upper Palaeolithic sites are similarly indicated. Degree of significance: *** p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05. Cases of possible overrepresentation in Palaeolithic sites but with sample sizes that are too small to provide definitive evidence are indicated as “possible”. Remige feather colour: d = dark; i = intermediate - this includes birds with light brown or more often spotting or barred patterns so have some white and some dark per feather; and m = mix where some feathers are white (e.g. primaries) and some are black (e.g. secondaries). Over-repr. = over-represented; PS = Palaeolithic sites; MPS = Middle Palaeolithic sites. Statistical analyses are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927#pone.0045927.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Tables S6</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927#pone.0045927.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raptors", "corvids", "paleolithic", "humans"], "article_id"=>247364, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clive Finlayson", "Kimberly Brown", "Ruth Blasco", "Jordi Rosell", "Juan José Negro", "Gary R. Bortolotti", "Geraldine Finlayson", "Antonio Sánchez Marco", "Francisco Giles Pacheco", "Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal", "José S. Carrión", "Darren A. Fa", "José M. Rodríguez Llanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_association_of_raptors_and_corvids_with_Paleolithic_humans_across_the_Palearctic_/247364", "title"=>"The association of raptors and corvids with Paleolithic humans across the Palearctic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-09-17 02:02:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576763"], "description"=>"<p>Green: Middle (or earlier) Palaeolithic sites; Red: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Sites; Blue: Upper Palaeolithic Sites; Black: paleontological sites. GC: Gorham's Cave, Vanguard Cave and Ibex Cave; RF: Riparo Fumane; CG: Combe-Grenal and Les Fieux.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["archaeological", "paleontological", "sites", "18", "raptor-corvid"], "article_id"=>247241, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clive Finlayson", "Kimberly Brown", "Ruth Blasco", "Jordi Rosell", "Juan José Negro", "Gary R. Bortolotti", "Geraldine Finlayson", "Antonio Sánchez Marco", "Francisco Giles Pacheco", "Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal", "José S. Carrión", "Darren A. Fa", "José M. Rodríguez Llanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_archaeological_and_paleontological_sites_with_50_or_more_of_the_suite_of_18_raptor_corvid_species_identified_in_the_text_/247241", "title"=>"Distribution of archaeological and paleontological sites with 50% or more of the suite of 18 raptor-corvid species identified in the text.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-17 02:00:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/576573"], "description"=>"<p>a) distal diaphysis of <i>Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax</i> humerus (Gor'96 No. 87); b) proximal diaphysis of <i>Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax</i> humerus; c) proximal diaphysis of <i>Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax</i> humerus (GOR'96 NO. 299); d) distal diaphysis of <i>Milvus milvus</i> radius (GOR'00/B8/NIV/205); e) middle shaft of <i>Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax</i> tarsometatarsus (Ibex 94 No. 24); f) middle shaft of <i>Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax</i> femur (Ibex 94 No. 166); g) proximal diaphysis of <i>Pyrrhocorax graculus</i> ulna (GOR'00/B5/NIV/57); h) distal diaphysis of <i>Gyps fulvus</i> ulna (Van 96 No. 209A).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cut-marks", "gibraltar"], "article_id"=>247058, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clive Finlayson", "Kimberly Brown", "Ruth Blasco", "Jordi Rosell", "Juan José Negro", "Gary R. Bortolotti", "Geraldine Finlayson", "Antonio Sánchez Marco", "Francisco Giles Pacheco", "Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal", "José S. Carrión", "Darren A. Fa", "José M. Rodríguez Llanes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_cut_marks_from_Gibraltar_sites_/247058", "title"=>"Examples of cut-marks from Gibraltar sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-09-17 01:57:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304584", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/304602", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309337", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309421", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309493", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309582", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309611", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309628", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309691", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309807"], "description"=>"<div><p>The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of Modern Humans, constitute a major advance in the study of human evolution.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds", "neanderthal", "exploitation", "raptors", "corvids"], "article_id"=>120071, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Clive Finlayson", "Kimberly Brown", "Ruth Blasco", "Jordi Rosell", "Juan José Negro", "Gary R. Bortolotti", "Geraldine Finlayson", "Antonio Sánchez Marco", "Francisco Giles Pacheco", "Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal", "José S. Carrión", "Darren A. Fa", "José M. Rodríguez Llanes"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Birds_of_a_Feather_Neanderthal_Exploitation_of_Raptors_and_Corvids/120071", "title"=>"Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-09-17 00:01:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"98", "full-text"=>"112", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[350, 552, 657, 754, 839, 932, 1023, 1103, 1197, 1274, 1359, 1436, 1499, 1564, 1640, 1726, 1794, 1865, 1933, 2021, 2101, 2181, 2239, 2324, 2376]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[515, 808, 907, 1032, 1129, 1219, 1316, 1426, 1532, 1602, 1675, 1771, 1798, 1933, 2015, 2088, 2152, 2219, 2280, 2360, 2453, 2503, 2615, 2712, 2807]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physical anthropology", "average_usage"=>[440, 662, 800, 963, 1126, 1206, 1318, 1514, 1649, 1782, 1891, 2005, 2118, 2225, 2319, 2403, 2558, 2660, 2806, 2919, 3008, 3101, 3164, 3237, 3313]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[368, 548, 649, 749, 833, 915, 993, 1071, 1153, 1240, 1315, 1388, 1456, 1520, 1597, 1673, 1747, 1826, 1892, 1975, 2036, 2101, 2178, 2256, 2319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geography", "average_usage"=>[335, 517, 611, 697, 777, 866, 931, 1004, 1074, 1183, 1251, 1324, 1396, 1474, 1553, 1608, 1670, 1744, 1819, 1875, 1930, 2011, 2092, 2162, 2218]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Paleoecology", "average_usage"=>[415, 601, 722, 808, 865, 950, 1061, 1124, 1176, 1229, 1290, 1345, 1372]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Anthropology", "average_usage"=>[569, 875, 1014, 1136, 1234, 1362, 1475, 1596, 1772, 1895, 2037, 2150, 2252, 2430, 2529, 2629, 2714, 2777, 2904, 2987, 3107, 3219, 3286, 3357, 3440]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Human geography", "average_usage"=>[349, 511, 586, 696, 768, 841, 924, 1003, 1071, 1145, 1226, 1291, 1370, 1428, 1497, 1553, 1612, 1660, 1723, 1805, 1865, 1922, 1981, 2043, 2100]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts