A New Rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Germany with a Dentition That Is Unique amongst Tetrapods
Publication Date
October 31, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Oliver W. M. Rauhut, Alexander M. Heyng, Adriana López Arbarello & Andreas Hecker
Volume
7
Issue
10
Pages
e46839
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0046839
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23118861
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485277
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23118861
Web of Science
000310600500010
Scopus
84868293018
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-rhynchocephalian-late-jurassic-germany-dentition-unique-amongst-tetrapods
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A New Rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Germany with a Dentition That Is Unique amongst Tetrapods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Oliver W M", "last_name"=>"Rauhut", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603751338"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander M.", "last_name"=>"Heyng", "scopus_author_id"=>"55241800400"}, {"first_name"=>"Adriana", "last_name"=>"López-Arbarello", "scopus_author_id"=>"24492240800"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Hecker", "scopus_author_id"=>"55444949300"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23118861", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0046839", "sgr"=>"84868293018", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84868293018", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365972018"}, "id"=>"a4aca8bc-1f6d-3db7-8750-c9e386aeb32e", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Rhynchocephalians, the sister group of squamates (lizards and snakes), are only represented by the single genus Sphenodon today. This taxon is often considered to represent a very conservative lineage. However, rhynchocephalians were common during the late Triassic to latest Jurassic periods, but rapidly declined afterwards, which is generally attributed to their supposedly adaptive inferiority to squamates and/or Mesozoic mammals, which radiated at that time. New finds of Mesozoic rhynchocephalians can thus provide important new information on the evolutionary history of the group.\\n\\nPRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A new fossil relative of Sphenodon from the latest Jurassic of southern Germany, Oenosaurus muehlheimensis gen. et sp. nov., presents a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods. The dentition of this taxon consists of massive, continuously growing tooth plates, probably indicating a crushing dentition, thus representing a previously unknown trophic adaptation in rhynchocephalians.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evolution of the extraordinary dentition of Oenosaurus from the already highly specialized Zahnanlage generally present in derived rhynchocephalians demonstrates an unexpected evolutionary plasticity of these animals. Together with other lines of evidence, this seriously casts doubts on the assumption that rhynchocephalians are a conservative and adaptively inferior lineage. Furthermore, the new taxon underlines the high morphological and ecological diversity of rhynchocephalians in the latest Jurassic of Europe, just before the decline of this lineage on this continent. Thus, selection pressure by radiating squamates or Mesozoic mammals alone might not be sufficient to explain the demise of the clade in the Late Mesozoic, and climate change in the course of the fragmentation of the supercontinent of Pangaea might have played a major role.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-rhynchocephalian-late-jurassic-germany-dentition-unique-amongst-tetrapods", "reader_count"=>39, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/550430"], "description"=>"<p>Cladistic analysis of 70 osteological characters in 19 rhynchocephalian and two outgroup taxa resulted in the recovery of 2 trees with 184 steps (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839#pone.0046839.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Information S1</a>). A strict consensus tree shows <i>Oenosaurus</i> well nested within sphenodontine rhynchocephalians, as a close relative to the Recent <i>Sphenodon</i>. 1, Rhynchocephalia; 2, Sphenodontinae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships"], "article_id"=>220928, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationships_of_Oenosaurus_muehlheimensis_within_rhynchocephalians_/220928", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationships of <i>Oenosaurus muehlheimensis</i> within rhynchocephalians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 00:15:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/550550"], "description"=>"<p>T, functional tooth type; D, interpretation of dietary preferences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "types", "dietary"], "article_id"=>221048, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Calibrated_phylogeny_of_rhynchocephalians_indicating_different_tooth_types_and_dietary_interpretations_/221048", "title"=>"Calibrated phylogeny of rhynchocephalians, indicating different tooth types and dietary interpretations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 00:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/550146"], "description"=>"<p>(A)–Left maxillary tooth plate in ventral view (anterior is to the left). (B)–Enlargement of posterior part of left maxillary tooth plate, showing compound structure of the plate. (C)–Further enlargement of left maxillary tooth plate, showing closely packed, worn teeth with central pulp cavities. Scale bars are 1 mm (A, B) and 0.5 mm (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dentition", "bspg", "2009"], "article_id"=>220644, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_dentition_of_O_muehlheimensis_Holotype_BSPG_2009_I_23_/220644", "title"=>"Details of dentition of <i>O. muehlheimensis</i> (Holotype, BSPG 2009 I 23).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 00:10:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/550345"], "description"=>"<p>Posterior is to the right. Abbreviations: bc, basal cavity; f, foramen. Small arrows point to bifurcating dentine channels. Scale bar is 5 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["micro", "ct", "dentary"], "article_id"=>220840, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parasagittal_micro_CT_section_of_the_right_dentary_of_Oenosaurus_muelheimensis_/220840", "title"=>"Parasagittal micro CT section of the right dentary of <i>Oenosaurus muelheimensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 00:14:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/549821"], "description"=>"<p>Modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839#pone.0046839-Schmid1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839#pone.0046839-LpezArbarello1\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839#pone.0046839-Frsich1\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "locality"], "article_id"=>220315, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographical_and_stratigraphic_setting_of_the_locality_of_the_new_taxon_/220315", "title"=>"Geographical and stratigraphic setting of the locality of the new taxon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 00:05:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/293383"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Rhynchocephalians, the sister group of squamates (lizards and snakes), are only represented by the single genus <em>Sphenodon</em> today. This taxon is often considered to represent a very conservative lineage. However, rhynchocephalians were common during the late Triassic to latest Jurassic periods, but rapidly declined afterwards, which is generally attributed to their supposedly adaptive inferiority to squamates and/or Mesozoic mammals, which radiated at that time. New finds of Mesozoic rhynchocephalians can thus provide important new information on the evolutionary history of the group.</p> <h3>Principle Findings</h3><p>A new fossil relative of <em>Sphenodon</em> from the latest Jurassic of southern Germany, <em>Oenosaurus muehlheimensis</em> gen. et sp. nov., presents a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods. The dentition of this taxon consists of massive, continuously growing tooth plates, probably indicating a crushing dentition, thus representing a previously unknown trophic adaptation in rhynchocephalians.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The evolution of the extraordinary dentition of <em>Oenosaurus</em> from the already highly specialized Zahnanlage generally present in derived rhynchocephalians demonstrates an unexpected evolutionary plasticity of these animals. Together with other lines of evidence, this seriously casts doubts on the assumption that rhynchocephalians are a conservative and adaptively inferior lineage. Furthermore, the new taxon underlines the high morphological and ecological diversity of rhynchocephalians in the latest Jurassic of Europe, just before the decline of this lineage on this continent. Thus, selection pressure by radiating squamates or Mesozoic mammals alone might not be sufficient to explain the demise of the clade in the Late Mesozoic, and climate change in the course of the fragmentation of the supercontinent of Pangaea might have played a major role.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhynchocephalian", "Jurassic", "germany", "dentition", "amongst", "tetrapods"], "article_id"=>117758, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>34, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_New_Rhynchocephalian_from_the_Late_Jurassic_of_Germany_with_a_Dentition_That_Is_Unique_amongst_Tetrapods__/117758", "title"=>"A New Rhynchocephalian from the Late Jurassic of Germany with a Dentition That Is Unique amongst Tetrapods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 02:09:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/550006"], "description"=>"<p>(A)–Skull in dorsal view. (B)–Skull in ventral view. (C–D)–Right mandible in lateral (C) and medial (D) views. (E)–Left mandible in lateral view. (F)–Stereophotographs of the skull in ventral view. Abbreviations: a, angular; ar, articular; bsp, basisphenoid; bt, basal tubera; co, coronoid; cos, coronoid shelf; d, dentary; ect, ectopterygoid; eo, exoccipital/opisthotic; f, frontal; fo, foramen; j, jugal; m, maxilla; mf, mandibular foramen; mg, Meckelian groove; oc, occipital condyle; pa, parietal; pal, palatine; po, postorbital; pof, postfrontal; prf, prefrontal; pt, pterygoid; sa, surangular; sy, symphysis; tp, tooth plate. Scale bars are 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Jurassic", "sphenodontine", "rhynchocephalian", "bspg", "2009"], "article_id"=>220495, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Oliver W. M. Rauhut", "Alexander M. Heyng", "Adriana López-Arbarello", "Andreas Hecker"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046839.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_New_Late_Jurassic_sphenodontine_rhynchocephalian_Oenosaurus_muehlheimensis_Holotype_BSPG_2009_I_23_/220495", "title"=>"New Late Jurassic sphenodontine rhynchocephalian <i>Oenosaurus muehlheimensis</i> (Holotype, BSPG 2009 I 23).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-31 00:08:15"}

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Relative Metric

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