Declining Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) Populations Are Associated with Landscape-Specific Reductions in Brood Parasitism and Increases in Songbird Productivity
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{"title"=>"Declining Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) Populations Are Associated with Landscape-Specific Reductions in Brood Parasitism and Increases in Songbird Productivity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"W. Andrew", "last_name"=>"Cox", "scopus_author_id"=>"15838787900"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank R.", "last_name"=>"Thompson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202217448"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Root", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003508085"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Faaborg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003400437"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867513475", "sgr"=>"84867513475", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23077647", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047591", "pui"=>"365864512"}, "id"=>"8b7ade50-976d-30b1-ab09-a71d6f6e5d80", "abstract"=>"Many songbird species have experienced significant population declines, partly because of brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), which is positively associated with increasing landscape forest cover in the midwestern United States. However, cowbirds are also experiencing long-term population declines, which should reduce parasitism pressure and thus increase productivity of host species. We used 20 years of nest monitoring data from five sites in Missouri across a gradient of landscape forest cover to assess temporal trends in the rate and intensity of brood parasitism for Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), and Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). We evaluated whether there were concomitant changes in fledging brood size, nest survival, a combination of the two metrics (i.e., host young produced per nest attempt), and whether such changes were more substantial with decreasing landscape forest cover. Parasitism rates and intensities declined substantially during 1991-2010. Fledging brood size and nest survival rates were positively associated with landscape forest cover, confirming the fragmentation hypothesis for Midwest forest birds. Declining parasitism rates were associated with increased fledging brood sizes, with more pronounced increases as landscape forest cover decreased. Nest survival increased insubstantially across time during laying and incubation, but not during the nestling stage. The best predictor of nest survival was parasitism status, with parasitized nests surviving at lower rates than unparasitized nests. Overall, productivity increased during 1991-2010, with more pronounced increases associated with lower levels of landscape forest cover. The negative effects of cowbirds on nest survival in addition to fledging brood size in less forested landscapes suggest that cowbirds may be a primary cause of forest fragmentation effects on songbird productivity in the Midwest. Our results underscore the dynamic nature of demographic parameters, which should be accounted for in predictive models of wildlife responses to future environmental conditions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/declining-brownheaded-cowbird-molothrus-ater-populations-associated-landscapespecific-reductions-bro", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/558379"], "description"=>"<p>Locations of REAM (triangles), Baskett (square), and MOFEP (circle) sites in a study of temporal trends of brood parasitism and nest survival in Missouri, USA, 1991–2009. Shading indicates percent forest cover in a 10-km radius, with darker shading indicating more forest (range: <1–97%). Numbers next to each site indicate number of nests used in nest survival analysis for Acadian Flycatchers, Indigo Buntings, and Northern Cardinals, respectively, and the mean percent forest cover for nests at each site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>228871, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["W. Andrew Cox", "Frank R. Thompson III", "Brian Root", "John Faaborg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_locations_/228871", "title"=>"Study locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:41:29"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/558774"], "description"=>"a<p>Number of parameters. Parasitism rate models include a parameter for estimating covariance structure of the random effect (study site), whereas intensity and productivity models also include a parameter for the residual variance of the random effect. All productivity models except the null also include a term for parasitism status. Models with interactions include all constitutive terms as per <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591#pone.0047591-Brambor1\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a>.</p>b<p>Akaike's Information Criterion.</p>c<p>Difference between the AIC score of current and top-ranked model.</p>d<p>Relative weight of support for the model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["temporal", "trends", "brood", "parasitism", "models", "weights", "indigo", "acadian", "cardinals"], "article_id"=>229261, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["W. Andrew Cox", "Frank R. Thompson III", "Brian Root", "John Faaborg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_selection_results_from_analysis_of_temporal_trends_of_brood_parasitism_and_productivity_top_ranked_models_have_weights_in_bold_for_Indigo_Buntings_Acadian_Flycatchers_and_Northern_Cardinals_in_Missouri_USA_1991_8211_2010_/229261", "title"=>"Model selection results from analysis of temporal trends of brood parasitism and productivity (top-ranked models have weights in bold) for Indigo Buntings, Acadian Flycatchers, and Northern Cardinals in Missouri, USA, 1991–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:43:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/558671"], "description"=>"<p>Average productivity per nest attempt across time at 5%, median, and 95% observed values of forest cover (23%, 53%, and 94%, respectively) for a balanced population of three songbird species in a study of brood parasitism and nest predation in Missouri, USA, 1991–2010. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals and are offset for visual clarity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>229166, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["W. Andrew Cox", "Frank R. Thompson III", "Brian Root", "John Faaborg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Productivity_per_nest_attempt_/229166", "title"=>"Productivity per nest attempt.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:43:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/558429"], "description"=>"<p>Model-based predictions of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism rates (A) and intensity (B) for three songbird species in Missouri, USA, 1991–2010. Rates are for a population at the median value for forest cover (53%) and at observed frequencies of nests in three habitat types (forest, clearcut, non-forest). Rates in (B) are for a balanced population of the three songbird species. Intensity values <1 are not possible (i.e., there cannot be <1 cowbird egg or nestling in a parasitized nest), so predictions of parasitism intensity should be interpreted with regard to temporal changes rather than absolute values. Error bars in (A) and dashed lines in (B) represent 95% confidence intervals, with some bars offset for visual clarity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "parasitism", "rates"], "article_id"=>228920, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["W. Andrew Cox", "Frank R. Thompson III", "Brian Root", "John Faaborg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_trends_in_parasitism_rates_and_intensity_/228920", "title"=>"Temporal trends in parasitism rates and intensity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:41:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/558522"], "description"=>"<p>Model-based predictions of fledging brood size at 5%, median, and 95% observed values of forest cover (23%, 53%, and 94%, respectively) across a balanced population of three songbird species in Missouri, USA, 1991–2010. Estimates are for a population at observed frequencies of nests in three habitat types (forest, clearcut, non-forest), with parasitism rates varying across years and forest cover levels on the basis of the parasitism rate model-selection analysis. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals and are offset for visual clarity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "fledging", "brood"], "article_id"=>229018, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["W. Andrew Cox", "Frank R. Thompson III", "Brian Root", "John Faaborg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_trends_in_fledging_brood_size_/229018", "title"=>"Temporal trends in fledging brood size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:42:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/558588"], "description"=>"<p>Model-based predictions of daily songbird nest survival rate by nest stage (A) and for 5%, median, and 95% observed values of forest cover (23%, 53%, and 94%, respectively; B) in Missouri, USA, 1991–2010. Predictions in (A) are for a balanced population of three songbird species at the median (53%) value of forest cover and at observed frequencies of nests in three habitat types (forest, clearcut, non-forest). Predictions in (B) are for a balanced population of three songbird species and three habitat types, with unbalanced nest stages (lay: 11%, incubation: 49%, nestling: 40%) that reflect the average time spent in each stage across species. Parasitism rates were varied across years and forest cover levels on the basis of the parasitism rate model-selection analysis. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals and are offset for visual clarity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>229083, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["W. Andrew Cox", "Frank R. Thompson III", "Brian Root", "John Faaborg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047591.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nest_survival_by_stage_and_forest_cover_/229083", "title"=>"Nest survival by stage and forest cover.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:42:40"}

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Relative Metric

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