Associations between Pathogens in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Young Children: Interplay between Viruses and Bacteria
Publication Date
October 17, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Menno R. Van Den Bergh, Giske Biesbroek, John W. A. Rossen, Wouter A. A. De Steenhuijsen Piters, et al
Volume
7
Issue
10
Pages
e47711
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047711
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082199
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3474735
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23082199
Web of Science
000311146900096
Scopus
84867627559
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/associations-between-pathogens-upper-respiratory-tract-young-children-interplay-between-viruses-bact
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Associations between Pathogens in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Young Children: Interplay between Viruses and Bacteria", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Menno R.", "last_name"=>"van den Bergh", "scopus_author_id"=>"16030098500"}, {"first_name"=>"Giske", "last_name"=>"Biesbroek", "scopus_author_id"=>"55277535800"}, {"first_name"=>"John W A", "last_name"=>"Rossen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005977394"}, {"first_name"=>"Wouter A A", "last_name"=>"de Steenhuijsen Piters", "scopus_author_id"=>"55385506900"}, {"first_name"=>"Astrid A T M", "last_name"=>"Bosch", "scopus_author_id"=>"55416097200"}, {"first_name"=>"Elske J M", "last_name"=>"van Gils", "scopus_author_id"=>"8878514900"}, {"first_name"=>"Xinhui", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"54912153600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chantal W B", "last_name"=>"Boonacker", "scopus_author_id"=>"26027749700"}, {"first_name"=>"Reinier H.", "last_name"=>"Veenhoven", "scopus_author_id"=>"17037069900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacob P.", "last_name"=>"Bruin", "scopus_author_id"=>"8727419100"}, {"first_name"=>"Debby", "last_name"=>"Bogaert", "scopus_author_id"=>"55962909800"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisabeth A M", "last_name"=>"Sanders", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102550106"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867627559", "sgr"=>"84867627559", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047711", "pmid"=>"23082199", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"365880145"}, "id"=>"afa47f3a-8dbf-3de9-89a7-b8471097f8b8", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease.\n\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. S. pneumoniae colonization was positively associated with the presence of H. influenzae (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.16), M. catarrhalis (1.78, 1.29-2.47), human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19-2.22) and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26-3.10), and negatively associated with S. aureus presence (0.59, 0.35-0.98). H. influenzae was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22-2.18) and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06-7.28). M. catarrhalis colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01-3.93) and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29-10.56), and negatively with S. aureus carriage (0.42, 0.25-0.69). We observed a strong positive association between S. aureus and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59-14.89). In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66-3.47), as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.\n\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data revealed high viral and bacterial prevalence rates and distinct bacterial-bacterial, viral-bacterial and viral-viral associations in healthy children, hinting towards the complexity and potential dynamics of microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract. This warrants careful consideration when associating microbial presence with specific respiratory diseases.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/associations-between-pathogens-upper-respiratory-tract-young-children-interplay-between-viruses-bact", "reader_count"=>147, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/296907", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/297021"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em>, <em>Haemophilus influenzae</em>, <em>Moraxella catarrhalis</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. <em>S. pneumoniae</em> colonization was positively associated with the presence of <em>H. influenzae</em> (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.16), <em>M. catarrhalis</em> (1.78, 1.29–2.47), human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19–2.22) and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26–3.10), and negatively associated with <em>S. aureus</em> presence (0.59, 0.35–0.98). <em>H. influenzae</em> was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22–2.18) and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06–7.28). <em>M. catarrhalis</em> colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01–3.93) and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29–10.56), and negatively with <em>S. aureus</em> carriage (0.42, 0.25–0.69). We observed a strong positive association between <em>S. aureus</em> and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59–14.89). In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66–3.47), as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our data revealed high viral and bacterial prevalence rates and distinct bacterial-bacterial, viral-bacterial and viral-viral associations in healthy children, hinting towards the complexity and potential dynamics of microbial communities in the upper respiratory tract. This warrants careful consideration when associating microbial presence with specific respiratory diseases.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["associations", "pathogens", "respiratory", "tract", "interplay", "viruses"], "article_id"=>118501, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Menno R. van den Bergh", "Giske Biesbroek", "John W. A. Rossen", "Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters", "Astrid A. T. M. Bosch", "Elske J. M. van Gils", "Xinhui Wang", "Chantal W. B. Boonacker", "Reinier H. Veenhoven", "Jacob P. Bruin", "Debby Bogaert", "Elisabeth A. M. Sanders"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Associations_between_Pathogens_in_the_Upper_Respiratory_Tract_of_Young_Children_Interplay_between_Viruses_and_Bacteria/118501", "title"=>"Associations between Pathogens in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Young Children: Interplay between Viruses and Bacteria", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-17 02:21:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557318"], "description"=>"<p>Visualization of the partial correlations between bacteria and viruses (A) and epidemiologic drivers (risk factors) of those interactions (B). The patterns depicted here result from partial correlation network analysis and are visualized by Cytoscape. Bacteria are shown in blue, respiratory viruses in orange and risk factors in grey boxes. The solid lines represent associations with a p-value less than 0.01, the dashed lines represent associations with a p-value between 0.01 and 0.05. Green lines indicate positively correlated variables; red lines indicate negative correlations. The thickness of the line indicates the magnitude of the correlation. Abbreviations: SP, <i>S. pneumoniae</i>; HI, <i>H. influenzae</i>; MC, <i>M. catarrhalis</i>; SA, <i>S. aureus</i>; HRV, human rhinovirus, EV, enterovirus; HBoV, human bocavirus; WUPyV, WU polyomavirus; HCoV, human coronavirus; PIV, parainfluenza virus; HAdV, human adenovirus; IV, influenza virus; HPeV, human parechovirus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; AB, antibiotic use within 2 months before sampling; ‘crowding’ was entered into the model as a variable combining the presence of siblings (yes/no) and day care attendance (yes/no); 0 = no siblings and no day care attendance, 1 = siblings present, but not attending day care, or vice versa, and 2 = siblings present and attending day care.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pediatrics and child health", "respiratory medicine", "otolaryngology"], "article_id"=>227795, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Menno R. van den Bergh", "Giske Biesbroek", "John W. A. Rossen", "Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters", "Astrid A. T. M. Bosch", "Elske J. M. van Gils", "Xinhui Wang", "Chantal W. B. Boonacker", "Reinier H. Veenhoven", "Jacob P. Bruin", "Debby Bogaert", "Elisabeth A. M. Sanders"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_representation_of_interaction_patterns_/227795", "title"=>"Graphical representation of interaction patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-17 02:09:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557405"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: SD, standard deviation; NA, not applicable; PCV-7, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; URTI, upper respiratory tract infection.</p>a<p>Defined as more than 4 hours per week with at least one child from another family (yes/no).</p>b<p>Defined as use of an antibiotic, orally or intravenously administered with start date within 2 months before sampling date (yes/no). Of those, the prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin (n = 69), penicillin (n = 1), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (n = 3), a macrolide (n = 14; claritromycin (n = 8), azitromycin (n = 5), erythromycin (n = 1), a cephalosporin (n = 1, unknown type), and 3 unknowns.</p>c<p>Parent-reported presence of mild symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection (eg, a runny nose) at the time of sampling (yes/no).</p>d<p>Presence of enteroviruses and human parechovirus was determined in a subgroup of samples (N = 831) due to insufficient amounts of remaining nasopharyngeal swab material or nucleic acids to run these tests. Missing values were imputed by the single imputation procedure in multivariate analysis models in which these viruses were included to retain statistical power.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nasopharyngeal", "bacterial", "colonization", "viral", "detection"], "article_id"=>227881, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Menno R. van den Bergh", "Giske Biesbroek", "John W. A. Rossen", "Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters", "Astrid A. T. M. Bosch", "Elske J. M. van Gils", "Xinhui Wang", "Chantal W. B. Boonacker", "Reinier H. Veenhoven", "Jacob P. Bruin", "Debby Bogaert", "Elisabeth A. M. Sanders"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_children_nasopharyngeal_bacterial_colonization_and_viral_detection_rates_/227881", "title"=>"Characteristics of the children, nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and viral detection rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-17 02:11:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557459"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable (i.e., not included in the model for that particular bacterial pathogen), RSV, respiratory syncytial virus.</p>a<p>Adjusted for age and all variables with a P value of <0.1 in univariate analysis.</p>b<p>Statistically significant associations are shown in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjusted", "nasopharyngeal", "bacterial", "co-occurrence", "respiratory", "viruses"], "article_id"=>227938, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Menno R. van den Bergh", "Giske Biesbroek", "John W. A. Rossen", "Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters", "Astrid A. T. M. Bosch", "Elske J. M. van Gils", "Xinhui Wang", "Chantal W. B. Boonacker", "Reinier H. Veenhoven", "Jacob P. Bruin", "Debby Bogaert", "Elisabeth A. M. Sanders"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_and_adjusted_odds_ratios_a_b_for_nasopharyngeal_bacterial_colonization_co_occurrence_with_each_of_the_other_bacteria_respiratory_viruses_and_risk_factors_/227938", "title"=>"Distribution and adjusted odds ratios<sup>a,b</sup> for nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization, co-occurrence with each of the other bacteria, respiratory viruses and risk factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-17 02:12:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/557511"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable (i.e., not included in the model for that particular virus or pooled group of viruses), RSV, respiratory syncytial virus.</p>a<p>Adjusted for age and all variables with a P value of <0.1 in univariate analysis.</p>b<p>Statistically significant associations are shown in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adjusted", "nasopharyngeal", "co-occurrence", "respiratory"], "article_id"=>227989, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Menno R. van den Bergh", "Giske Biesbroek", "John W. A. Rossen", "Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters", "Astrid A. T. M. Bosch", "Elske J. M. van Gils", "Xinhui Wang", "Chantal W. B. Boonacker", "Reinier H. Veenhoven", "Jacob P. Bruin", "Debby Bogaert", "Elisabeth A. M. Sanders"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047711.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_and_adjusted_odds_ratios_a_b_for_nasopharyngeal_presence_of_the_most_common_viruses_co_occurrence_with_each_of_the_other_respiratory_viruses_bacteria_and_risk_factors_/227989", "title"=>"Distribution and adjusted odds ratios<sup>a,b</sup> for nasopharyngeal presence of the most common viruses, co-occurrence with each of the other respiratory viruses, bacteria and risk factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-17 02:13:09"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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