Natural or Artificial? Habitat-Use by the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas
Publication Date
November 16, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jonathan M. Werry, Shing Y. Lee, Charles J. Lemckert & Nicholas M. Otway
Volume
7
Issue
11
Pages
e49796
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0049796
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166772
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500329
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23166772
Web of Science
000311885300068
Scopus
84869238306
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/natural-artificial-habitatuse-bull-shark-carcharhinus-leucas
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Natural or Artificial? Habitat-Use by the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonathan M.", "last_name"=>"Werry", "scopus_author_id"=>"8561170400"}, {"first_name"=>"Shing Y.", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7601394910"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles J.", "last_name"=>"Lemckert", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603147395"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas M.", "last_name"=>"Otway", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188847504"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84869238306", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0049796", "sgr"=>"84869238306", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23166772", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"366057751"}, "id"=>"5d4e8963-5641-359e-88d1-12ea62d4acb3", "abstract"=>"Background: Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN 'Near-threatened' species - one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. Methodology/Findings: We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals). Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. Conclusions/Significance: Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of this research.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/natural-artificial-habitatuse-bull-shark-carcharhinus-leucas", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>59, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>59}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Tanzania"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Bahamas"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/541032"], "description"=>"<p>Neonate bull sharks are shown by black dots and juveniles with red dots for low salinity electivity (A) and natural habitat (Nerang River) electivity (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analyses", "sharks"], "article_id"=>211532, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electivity_analyses_of_bull_sharks_in_the_Gold_Coast_System_/211532", "title"=>"Electivity analyses of bull sharks in the Gold Coast System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:07:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540681"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers on the × axis refer to individual stations (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796#pone-0049796-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>) for river (A) and canal (B) habitats. River numbers correspond to upper river on the left to lower river on the right. Upper canal (6 and 7) and lower canal (14 and 12) are shown accordingly. Asterisk denotes stations with<15 detections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detections", "acoustic", "receivers", "neonate", "juvenile", "sharks", "tagged", "tags"], "article_id"=>211162, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_detections_at_individual_acoustic_receivers_for_all_neonate_and_juvenile_bull_sharks_tagged_with_acoustic_tags_in_the_Gold_Coast_system_/211162", "title"=>"Total detections at individual acoustic receivers for all neonate and juvenile bull sharks tagged with acoustic tags in the Gold Coast system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:05:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/541163"], "description"=>"<p>Movements within or between habitats of river (R) and canal (C) by different ontogenetic stages. N = neonate, J = juvenile. Tagging Habitat, RU = river upper, CU = canal upper, RL = river lower, CL = canal lower, M = male, F = female. # refers to bull sharks captured by recreational fishers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["movements", "sharks", "tagged", "acoustic", "tags"], "article_id"=>211656, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_overall_movements_of_bull_sharks_tagged_with_acoustic_tags_in_the_Gold_Coast_System_/211656", "title"=>"Summary of overall movements of bull sharks tagged with acoustic tags in the Gold Coast System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:08:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/541191"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (±SE) total length (TL) and range of <i>C. leucas</i> of different ontogenetic stages (N = neonate, J = juvenile, SA = subadult, A = adult) caught on rod and line (n = 8), longlines (n = 49) and in gillnets (n = 9) in the upper and lower areas of the Nerang River (natural habitat) and the upper and lower canals (man-made habitat) from January 2006 to December 2008. (RU = river upper, CU = canal upper, RL = river lower, CL = canal lower). Note: rod and line fishing done sporadically across the entire system and gillnets were only deployed in the upper reaches of the Nerang River. Note: A<sup>#</sup> = a putatively pregnant female 300 cm TL.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontogenetic", "sharks"], "article_id"=>211684, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_length_and_ontogenetic_stage_of_bull_sharks_in_the_Gold_Coast_System_/211684", "title"=>"Total length and ontogenetic stage of bull sharks in the Gold Coast System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:08:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540249"], "description"=>"<p>Map illustrating the location of the Nerang River (natural habitat) and Broadwater (in black) and adjoining canal systems (artificial habitat) (in white). Green and grey section of main map illustrates the approximate delineation of low (grey) and high (green) saline areas and upper (grey) and lower (green) river and canals. Numbers indicate the locations of longline surveys (LL), acoustic receivers (AR- highlighted in yellow) and conductivity temperature and depth meters (CTD). Lined area indicates freshwater separated from the artificial and natural habitats by a weir and lock.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["canal"], "article_id"=>210740, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gold_Coast_Canal_system_/210740", "title"=>"Gold Coast Canal system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:03:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540352"], "description"=>"<p>Quarterly surveys for 2006–2008 in natural and artificial habitats. RU = river upper, CU = canal upper, RL = river lower, CL = canal lower.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quarterly", "longlines", "surveys", "sharks"], "article_id"=>210845, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catch_per_unit_effort_CPUE_177_SE_for_quarterly_longlines_surveys_for_bull_sharks_in_the_Gold_Coast_System_/210845", "title"=>"Catch per unit effort (CPUE) (± SE) for quarterly longlines surveys for bull sharks in the Gold Coast System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:04:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/541100"], "description"=>"<p>Selection of waters with natural or artificial habitats by neonate and juvenile bull sharks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electivity", "analyses", "sharks"], "article_id"=>211595, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Habitat_electivity_analyses_for_bull_sharks_in_the_Gold_Coast_System_/211595", "title"=>"Habitat electivity analyses for bull sharks in the Gold Coast System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:08:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540958"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions of time (± SE) bull sharks were detected in differing salinity (A) and habitats (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sharks", "differing", "salinity", "habitats"], "article_id"=>211449, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportions_of_time_177_SE_bull_sharks_were_detected_in_differing_salinity_A_and_habitats_B_/211449", "title"=>"Proportions of time (± SE) bull sharks were detected in differing salinity (A) and habitats (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:07:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/541133"], "description"=>"<p>Selection of waters with particular salinity ranges by neonate and juvenile bull sharks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electivity", "analyses", "sharks"], "article_id"=>211626, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Salinity_electivity_analyses_for_bull_sharks_in_the_Gold_Coast_System_/211626", "title"=>"Salinity electivity analyses for bull sharks in the Gold Coast System.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:08:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540499"], "description"=>"<p>External acoustic tag and restraint of bull shark in harness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["acoustic", "restraint"], "article_id"=>211000, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_External_acoustic_tag_and_restraint_of_bull_shark_in_harness_/211000", "title"=>"External acoustic tag and restraint of bull shark in harness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:04:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540814"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers on the × axis refer to individual stations (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796#pone-0049796-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>). Asterisk denotes stations with<5 detections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detections", "acoustic", "receivers", "neonate", "juvenile", "sharks", "tagged", "tags"], "article_id"=>211301, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_individual_detections_across_all_acoustic_receivers_for_two_neonate_and_two_juvenile_bull_sharks_tagged_with_acoustic_tags_in_the_Gold_Coast_system_/211301", "title"=>"Examples of individual detections across all acoustic receivers for two neonate and two juvenile bull sharks tagged with acoustic tags in the Gold Coast system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:06:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/540904"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum displacement (km) between detections for bull sharks of varying total lengths (TL) detected on receivers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["displacement", "detections", "sharks", "varying", "lengths"], "article_id"=>211396, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jonathan M. Werry", "Shing Y. Lee", "Charles J. Lemckert", "Nicholas M. Otway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maximum_displacement_km_between_detections_for_bull_sharks_of_varying_total_lengths_TL_detected_on_receivers_/211396", "title"=>"Maximum displacement (km) between detections for bull sharks of varying total lengths (TL) detected on receivers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 20:07:05"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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