Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible
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{"title"=>"Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kristin N.", "last_name"=>"Harper", "scopus_author_id"=>"9246597200"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert D.", "last_name"=>"Fyumagwa", "scopus_author_id"=>"13608621300"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Hoare", "scopus_author_id"=>"35588102800"}, {"first_name"=>"Philemon N.", "last_name"=>"Wambura", "scopus_author_id"=>"14039690100"}, {"first_name"=>"Dorian H.", "last_name"=>"Coppenhaver", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004632793"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert M.", "last_name"=>"Sapolsky", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102856849"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan C.", "last_name"=>"Alberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005191058"}, {"first_name"=>"Jenny", "last_name"=>"Tung", "scopus_author_id"=>"36852201800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey", "last_name"=>"Rogers", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404268692"}, {"first_name"=>"Morris", "last_name"=>"Kilewo", "scopus_author_id"=>"13611619400"}, {"first_name"=>"Emmanuel K.", "last_name"=>"Batamuzi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603624649"}, {"first_name"=>"Fabian H.", "last_name"=>"Leendertz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602340558"}, {"first_name"=>"George J.", "last_name"=>"Armelagos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003866762"}, {"first_name"=>"Sascha", "last_name"=>"Knauf", "scopus_author_id"=>"25629489100"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"366319137", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0050882", "sgr"=>"84871404421", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871404421", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23284649"}, "id"=>"30ff80a8-6b0f-31f5-ada5-6e88228deb94", "abstract"=>"It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/treponema-pallidum-infection-wild-baboons-east-africa-distribution-genetic-characterization-strains", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/281994"], "description"=>"<div><p>It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with <em>Treponema pallidum</em>, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. <em>pallidum</em>), yaws (subsp. <em>pertenue</em>), and bejel (subsp. <em>endemicum</em>) in humans. Recently, a form of <em>T. pallidum</em> infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using <em>T. pallidum</em> strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with <em>T. pallidum</em> infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated <em>T. pallidum</em> was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed <em>T. pallidum</em>-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that <em>T. pallidum</em> strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that <em>T. pallidum</em> infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["baboons", "characterization", "strains", "responsible"], "article_id"=>115597, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Treponema_pallidum_Infection_in_the_Wild_Baboons_of_East_Africa_Distribution_and_Genetic_Characterization_of_the_Strains_Responsible__/115597", "title"=>"<em>Treponema pallidum</em> Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 01:33:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520026"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Adult female, severely affected, with massive destruction of the outer genitalia. The granulated tissue is fragile and bleeds easily on contact. The lesion is chronic and active. <b>B.</b> Adult female, severely affected, with massive destruction of the outer genitalia. The lesion is characterized by progressive scarification that has led to the vagina and anus being in a permanently open state. <b>C.</b> Sub-adult male, in an early stage of clinical infection. The corpus penis shows multiple erosions of the epidermis. <b>D.</b> Adult male with severe phimosis and genital ulceration. The prepuce is filled with smegma. The lesion is chronic and active.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathology", "olive", "baboons", "genital", "circum-anal", "ulceration", "caused", "manyara", "tanzania"], "article_id"=>190493, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gross_pathology_of_olive_baboons_P_anubis_with_genital_and_circum_anal_ulceration_caused_by_T_pallidum_at_Lake_Manyara_National_Park_Tanzania_2007_/190493", "title"=>"Gross pathology of olive baboons (<i>P. anubis</i>) with genital and circum-anal ulceration caused by <i>T. pallidum</i> at Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania (2007).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:08:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520253"], "description"=>"<p>Phylogenies were constructed using both Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood methods to analyze 25 polymorphisms in six concatenated regions of the <i>Treponema</i> genome. The phylogenies were congruent and a Maximum Parsimony tree was chosen for display, with bootstrap support displayed at all nodes that received greater than 50% using both methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "demonstrates", "strains", "infecting", "baboons", "serengeti", "manyara", "genetically"], "article_id"=>190720, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_phylogeny_demonstrates_that_T_pallidum_strains_infecting_baboons_in_Serengeti_National_Park_and_Lake_Manyara_National_Park_are_genetically_distinct_from_one_another_/190720", "title"=>"A phylogeny demonstrates that <i>T. pallidum</i> strains infecting baboons in Serengeti National Park and Lake Manyara National Park are genetically distinct from one another.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:12:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520409"], "description"=>"<p>This map is based on the results presented in this paper (East African sites) as well as the results in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882#pone.0050882-FribourgBlanc1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882#pone.0050882-Baylet1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a> (West African sites). Inset: East African sites examined in this paper, with circles proportional to the number of animals tested serologically at each site. Years of serum collection ranged from 1977–2006, as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882#pone-0050882-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african", "sites", "baboons", "tested", "seropositive"], "article_id"=>190881, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geographic_location_of_African_sites_where_baboons_have_tested_seropositive_for_T_pallidum_antibodies_/190881", "title"=>"Geographic location of African sites where baboons have tested seropositive for <i>T. pallidum</i> antibodies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520576"], "description"=>"a<p>Sample seroprevalence may be inflated at GSNP, LMNP, and SNP, as some baboons were purposively sampled in the serological survey. Three of eight animals in GSNP, seven of nineteen at LMNP, and five of twenty-five at SNP were included because they displayed anogenital lesions.</p>b<p>GSNP has a history of antibiotic treatment of affected individuals <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882#pone.0050882-Wallis1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>, which may affect prevalence of infection there.</p>c<p>The collection of biological samples was not permitted at this site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "baboon", "troops", "animals", "tested", "seroprevalence", "prevalence", "outward", "signs"], "article_id"=>191040, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sampling_and_site_characteristics_of_baboon_troops_in_which_animals_were_tested_for_T_pallidum_including_seroprevalence_and_the_prevalence_of_outward_signs_of_infection_with_T_pallidum_/191040", "title"=>"Sampling and site characteristics of baboon troops in which animals were tested for <i>T. pallidum</i>, including seroprevalence and the prevalence of outward signs of infection with <i>T. pallidum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:17:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520635"], "description"=>"a<p>primers found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882#pone.0050882-Harper1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>.</p>b<p>primers found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882#pone.0050882-Gray1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "microbiology", "Evolutionary biology"], "article_id"=>191112, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_in_this_study_/191112", "title"=>"Primers used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:18:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520678"], "description"=>"a<p>TPC = <i>Treponema paraluiscuniculi</i> (agent that causes rabbit syphilis); SNP = Serengeti National Park; LMNP = Lake Manyara National Park.</p>b<p>Deletion from nucleotide residues 2384–2398.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polymorphisms", "included", "phylogenetic"], "article_id"=>191156, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Kristin N. Harper", "Robert D. Fyumagwa", "Richard Hoare", "Philemon N. Wambura", "Dorian H. Coppenhaver", "Robert M. Sapolsky", "Susan C. Alberts", "Jenny Tung", "Jeffrey Rogers", "Morris Kilewo", "Emmanuel K. Batamuzi", "Fabian H. Leendertz", "George J. Armelagos", "Sascha Knauf"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050882.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Table_of_polymorphisms_included_in_phylogenetic_analysis_/191156", "title"=>"Table of polymorphisms included in phylogenetic analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:19:16"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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Relative Metric

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