Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study
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{"title"=>"Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hélène", "last_name"=>"Amieva", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701611424"}, {"first_name"=>"Céline", "last_name"=>"Meillon", "scopus_author_id"=>"44361382500"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"Helmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003507426"}, {"first_name"=>"Pascale", "last_name"=>"Barberger-Gateau", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006725989"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean François", "last_name"=>"Dartigues", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101729170"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"368102956", "sgr"=>"84872344995", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0052755", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872344995", "pmid"=>"23326356"}, "id"=>"df89bf1b-481c-3297-8d72-e989093c9cd3", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study 'Paquid'. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the 'neither treatment' group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the 'neither treatment' group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = -0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the 'neither treatment' group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = -0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = -1.40 and β = -0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = -1.07, β = -1.61 and β = -0.41). CONCLUSION Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in those who did not. This effect may be a specific medication effect of EGb761®, since it was not observed for another nootropic medication, piracetam.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ginkgo-biloba-extract-longterm-cognitive-decline-20year-followup-populationbased-study", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Psychology"=>7, "Chemistry"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Slovakia"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"99", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"113", "full-text"=>"139", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"111", "full-text"=>"126", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"94", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"130", "full-text"=>"132", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"153", "full-text"=>"143", "pdf"=>"53", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Mental health and psychiatry", "average_usage"=>[282, 468, 596, 706, 804, 895, 1000, 1081, 1175, 1272, 1356, 1445, 1531]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[271, 485, 617, 733, 835, 933, 1026, 1115, 1207, 1294, 1386, 1475, 1543]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmaceutics", "average_usage"=>[254, 457, 591, 700, 808, 906, 1001, 1093, 1185, 1276, 1373, 1457, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[294, 460, 580, 683, 777, 868, 957, 1044, 1124, 1202, 1276, 1356, 1422]}]}
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