A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking
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{"title"=>"A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Malcolm", "scopus_author_id"=>"55527164900"}, {"first_name"=>"Wim", "last_name"=>"Derave", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603692823"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel", "last_name"=>"Galle", "scopus_author_id"=>"55597796800"}, {"first_name"=>"Dirk", "last_name"=>"De Clercq", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007178208"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0056137", "sgr"=>"84873925118", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368342563", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23418524", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84873925118"}, "id"=>"2239fa8a-92ad-3d1e-a456-66b0aac9ad27", "abstract"=>"BackgroundEven though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg−1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact.Conclusions/SignificanceThe optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/simple-exoskeleton-assists-plantarflexion-reduce-metabolic-cost-human-walking", "reader_count"=>227, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>85, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>52, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>85, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>52, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Energy"=>2, "Engineering"=>151, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Design"=>5, "Sports and Recreations"=>17, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>17}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>5}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>151}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>36}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/485194", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/485197", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/485201", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/485203"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing.</p> <h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg<sup>−1</sup> or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact.</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exoskeleton", "assists", "plantarflexion", "metabolic", "walking"], "article_id"=>156774, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Philippe Malcolm", "Wim Derave", "Samuel Galle", "Dirk De Clercq"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Simple_Exoskeleton_That_Assists_Plantarflexion_Can_Reduce_the_Metabolic_Cost_of_Human_Walking__/156774", "title"=>"A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 01:52:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489478"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Δ Net metabolic cost versus unpowered condition. Asterisks indicate significant differences versus unpowered condition. (<b>B</b>), 43% condition versus without exoskeleton. Asterisk indicates significant difference. (<b>C</b>) Performance index. Asterisks indicate significant difference versus 13% condition. Numbers below bars indicate differences expressed as percentages of net metabolic cost in unpowered or standard shoes condition. Horizontal bars indicate actuation duration. Vertical lines indicate heel contact and toe off. Filled circles (•) and triangles (▴) respectively indicate results derived <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137#pone.0056137-Givoni1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137#pone.0056137-Mifflin1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a> from Sawicki and Ferris <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137#pone.0056137-Sawicki1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a> and Norris et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137#pone.0056137-Norris1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a> (young adults population). Error bars indicate inter-subject s.e.m. Black and grey dashed lines indicate mean±s.e.m. of third-order polynomial curve fit. **p≤0.01, *p≤0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "biotechnology", "biophysics", "physics"], "article_id"=>159996, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Philippe Malcolm", "Wim Derave", "Samuel Galle", "Dirk De Clercq"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolic_cost_and_performance_index_/159996", "title"=>"Metabolic cost and performance index.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 02:46:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489577"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) COM height versus height at heelstrike during right leg stride cycle. Error bars indicate inter-subject s.e.m. Opaque horizontal bars indicate actuation duration of right leg exoskeleton. Transparent bars indicate the actuation duration of opposite leg exoskeleton. Vertical lines delimit single & double stance phases. (<b>B</b>) COM height during double stance phase. Arrows indicate COM drop after heel contact. It can be noted that the arrows are slightly larger than the minima of the lines in the chart. This due to the temporal variation of the occurrence of minimum COM height is which is not shown in the lines in the chart as these only show the mean evolution of COM height. Asterisk indicates significant Pearson’s correlation between Δ COM drop versus unpowered condition and Δ net metabolic cost versus unpowered condition. Black line and arrow indicate unpowered condition. *p≤0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["centre"], "article_id"=>160110, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Philippe Malcolm", "Wim Derave", "Samuel Galle", "Dirk De Clercq"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_centre_of_mass_COM_height_/160110", "title"=>"Body centre of mass (COM) height.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 00:01:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/489695"], "description"=>"<p>Black and green line respectively show knee and exoskeleton power in 43% onset condition. Numbers in chart surface indicate work during certain power peaks. Asterisks indicate significant difference between absolute value of knee swing deceleration work (W<sub>knee−</sub>) versus positive exoskeleton work (W<sub>exo+</sub>). Knee power is shown starting from the previous stride swing phase to illustrate how knee swing deceleration could be recycled into plantarflexion power during push off with a mechanism. Horizontal bar indicates actuation duration. Vertical lines indicate heel contact and toe off. Error bars indicate inter-subject s.e.m. **p≤0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feasibility", "ambulant", "recycling"], "article_id"=>160215, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Physics", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Philippe Malcolm", "Wim Derave", "Samuel Galle", "Dirk De Clercq"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056137.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothetical_feasibility_of_an_ambulant_recycling_exoskeleton_/160215", "title"=>"Hypothetical feasibility of an ambulant recycling exoskeleton.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-13 00:03:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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