Nitrogen Deposition Reduces Plant Diversity and Alters Ecosystem Functioning: Field-Scale Evidence from a Nationwide Survey of UK Heathlands
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{"title"=>"Nitrogen Deposition Reduces Plant Diversity and Alters Ecosystem Functioning: Field-Scale Evidence from a Nationwide Survey of UK Heathlands", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Georgina E.", "last_name"=>"Southon", "scopus_author_id"=>"55260419300"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Field", "scopus_author_id"=>"15030057500"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon J.M.", "last_name"=>"Caporn", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603739238"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea J.", "last_name"=>"Britton", "scopus_author_id"=>"8564049700"}, {"first_name"=>"Sally A.", "last_name"=>"Power", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101785178"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876948022", "pui"=>"368833189", "sgr"=>"84876948022", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23637736", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0059031"}, "id"=>"9be9be1c-257d-38e8-a523-71e700d10180", "abstract"=>"Findings from nitrogen (N) manipulation studies have provided strong evidence of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition on the structure and functioning of heathland ecosystems. Few studies, however, have sought to establish whether experimentally observed responses are also apparent under natural, field conditions. This paper presents the findings of a nationwide field-scale evaluation of British heathlands, across broad geographical, climatic and pollution gradients. Fifty two heathlands were selected across an N deposition gradient of 5.9 to 32.4 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The diversity and abundance of higher and lower plants and a suite of biogeochemical measures were evaluated in relation to climate and N deposition indices. Plant species richness declined with increasing temperature and N deposition, and the abundance of nitrophilous species increased with increasing N. Relationships were broadly similar between upland and lowland sites, with the biggest reductions in species number associated with increasing N inputs at the low end of the deposition range. Both oxidised and reduced forms of N were associated with species declines, although reduced N appears to be a stronger driver of species loss at the functional group level. Plant and soil biochemical indices were related to temperature, rainfall and N deposition. Litter C: N ratios and enzyme (phenol-oxidase and phosphomonoesterase) activities had the strongest relationships with site N inputs and appear to represent reliable field indicators of N deposition. This study provides strong, field-scale evidence of links between N deposition - in both oxidised and reduced forms - and widespread changes in the composition, diversity and functioning of British heathlands. The similarity of relationships between upland and lowland environments, across broad spatial and climatic gradients, highlights the ubiquity of relationships with N, and suggests that N deposition is contributing to biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem functioning across European heathlands.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/nitrogen-deposition-reduces-plant-diversity-alters-ecosystem-functioning-fieldscale-evidence-nationw", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>32, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>32}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047602"], "description"=>"<p>(+/−)  =  direction of response; x  =  interaction; P values  =  * <0.05, **<0.001, ***<0.001; gdd  =  growing degree days; moist  =  soil moisture; PME  =  phosphomonoesterase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "optimal", "biogeochemical", "responses", "deposition", "climatic"], "article_id"=>693211, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_optimal_models_for_plant_and_soil_biogeochemical_responses_in_relation_to_N_deposition_and_climatic_variables_/693211", "title"=>"Summary of optimal models for plant and soil biogeochemical responses in relation to N deposition and climatic variables<b>.</b>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047601"], "description"=>"<p>(+/−)  =  direction of response; x  =  interaction; P values  =  * <0.05, **<0.001, ***<0.001; gdd  =  growing degree days; ht  =  <i>Calluna</i> canopy height.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "optimal", "vegetation", "responses", "deposition"], "article_id"=>693210, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_optimal_models_for_vegetation_responses_in_relation_to_N_deposition_and_climate_variables_/693210", "title"=>"Summary of optimal models for vegetation responses in relation to N deposition and climate variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047596"], "description"=>"<p>Declines in lichen species richness are related to increasing N deposition (A) whereas bryophyte richness per se is principally influenced by temperature (B). At a species level, however, significant species-specific relationships between N deposition and bryophytes were evident (C, D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "deposition", "richness"], "article_id"=>693205, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_N_deposition_and_lower_plant_species_richness_and_abundance_/693205", "title"=>"Relationships between N deposition and lower plant species richness and abundance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047603"], "description"=>"<p>(+/−)  =  direction of response; x  =  interaction; P values  =  * <0.05, **<0.001, ***<0.001; gdd  =  growing degree days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "optimal", "richness", "deposition"], "article_id"=>693212, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_optimal_models_for_plant_species_richness_in_relation_to_N_deposition_and_climate_variables_/693212", "title"=>"Summary of optimal models for plant species richness in relation to N deposition and climate variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047598"], "description"=>"<p><i>Calluna</i> foliar N concentrations were principally related to changes in temperature (A). However, positive relationships were seen between <i>Calluna</i> litter N concentrations and total N deposition (B). Soil carbon concentrations were higher in areas receiving greater oxidised N inputs and rainfall (C), and soil C:N ratios were also positively related to levels of oxidised N deposition (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "deposition", "heathland"], "article_id"=>693207, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_influence_of_N_deposition_and_climate_on_heathland_plant_and_soil_chemistry_/693207", "title"=>"The influence of N deposition and climate on heathland plant and soil chemistry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047599"], "description"=>"<p>Increasing reduced N deposition was positively correlated with increased litter phenol-oxidase activity in upland sites (A) and litter phosphomonoesterase (PME) activity across all sites (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "deposition", "litter", "enzyme"], "article_id"=>693208, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_N_deposition_and_litter_enzyme_activity_/693208", "title"=>"Relationships between N deposition and litter enzyme activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047594"], "description"=>"<p>A decline of species richness across all plant groups correlates with increasing N deposition (A) and where N deposition and temperatures are higher (B). Whilst graminoid species richness declines in relation to increased N deposition inputs (C), graminoid abundance increases (D), indicating the promotion of fewer species at the higher end of the N gradient.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "deposition", "richness"], "article_id"=>693203, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_N_deposition_and_plant_species_richness_and_abundance_/693203", "title"=>"Relationships between N deposition and plant species richness and abundance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1047593"], "description"=>"<p>(<a href=\"http://pollutantdeposition.defra.gov.uk/pollutant-maps\" target=\"_blank\">http://pollutantdeposition.defra.gov.uk/pollutant-maps</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Soil science", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "biodiversity", "Global change ecology", "Soil ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Environmental chemistry", "Soil chemistry", "locations", "deposition"], "article_id"=>693202, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Chemistry", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georgina E. Southon", "Christopher Field", "Simon J. M. Caporn", "Andrea J. Britton", "Sally A. Power"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059031.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Site_survey_locations_in_relation_to_total_N_deposition_2006_/693202", "title"=>"Site survey locations in relation to total N deposition (2006).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-29 00:53:22"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecosystems", "average_usage"=>[284, 427]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Environmental chemistry", "average_usage"=>[203, 348, 442, 542, 627, 713, 771, 830, 903, 967, 1053, 1107, 1155]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Soil science", "average_usage"=>[210, 380, 471, 583, 685, 794, 892, 970, 1057, 1134, 1219, 1297, 1351]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[247, 429, 544, 647, 747, 842, 929, 1012, 1099, 1179, 1263, 1339, 1409]}]}
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